Skip to main content

Chemical Sensors and Biosensors for Medical and Biological Applications

Chemical Sensors and Biosensors for Medical and Biological Applications

Ursula E. Spichiger-Keller

ISBN: 978-3-527-61228-4

Dec 2007

425 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

This book introduces the principles and concepts of chemical and biochemical sensors for analyzing medical as well as biological samples. For applications like analyzing or monitoring gastric juice or blood plasma, the potential of sensors is exceptionally large. Focussed on these applications, the interpretation of analytical results is explained. Specific advantages are compared to other analytical techniques. Numerous tables with data provide useful information not easily found elsewhere and make a handy source of reference.
Ursula E. Spichiger-Keller is head of the Center for Chemical Sensors/Biosensors and Bioanalytical Chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich.
INTRODUCTION
Chemical and Biosensors as Alternative Analytical Tools
The Concept of Chemical and Biochemical Sensors
Recognition Processes and Sensortechnology: Milestones
ANALYTICAL GOALS
What Does "Data" Mean, What Does "Information" Mean?
The Impact of Analytical Results
Analytical Goals in Clinical Chemistry
CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL SENSORS
Specification and Nomenclature
The Recognition Process for Ions or Neutral Species
THE WAY TO CONTROL SENSOR REACTIONS
Thermodynamically Controlled Sensor Reactions
Thermodynamics of Nonequilibria, Diffusion and "Steady-State"
Rate Controlled Sensor Reactions, Mediated Enzyme Reactions
Non-Thermodynamic Assumptions: What Should be Measured and What Should be Reported?
THE ARTIFICIAL ANALYTE-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE: LIMITATIONS, TECHNOLOGICAL PRECAUTIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS
Membrane Models: Multilayer, Mixed Potential, Electrical Circuit
Membrane Composition and Membrane Medium
The Selectivity Coefficient
Response Behavior of Sensing Systems
Lifetime, Lipophilicity, and Immobilisation
Interactions by the Biological Matrix and Precautions
ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES, POTENTIOMETRIC SENSORS
The Symmetric Potentiometric Cell
The Magnesium-Selective Electrode
Microelectrodes for Intercellular Measurements
Miniaturized pH-Probe for Gastric Juice
OPTICAL SENSORS AND APPLICATIONS IN DILUTED PLASMA
Introduction and Medical Applications
"Simon Optodes": Realized Chemical Principles of Operation
Medical Assays: Applications in Diluted Plasma
Analytical Performance Parameters
Optical Transducing Elements Based on Multiple Internal Reflection (MIRE)
Trend to Miniaturized Integrated Optical Sensors (MIOS)
MEDIATED AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSORS
DATA VALIDATION AND INTERPRETATION
DATA TABLES AND INSTRUCTIONS
Terminology of Diagnostic Performance Parameters
Biological Setting-Points for Electrolytes
Allowable Analytical Errors for Electrolytes in Medical Assays
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Biological Abundant Cations
Structures and Physical Data of Plasticizers
Nomenclature, Provenience, Synthesis and Identity of Plasticizers
Materials and Methods Used for Preparation of Ion-Selective Electrodes
Required Logarithmic Selectivity Coefficients for Ion-Selective Electrodes
Synthesis and Identity of Ion-Selective Carriers
List of Structures and Selectivity Coefficients