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Chemical Thermodynamics at a Glance

Chemical Thermodynamics at a Glance

H. Donald Brooke Jenkins

ISBN: 978-0-470-69800-6

Apr 2008, Wiley-Blackwell

208 pages



Chemical thermodynamics considers the energy transformations which drive or which occur as a result of chemical reactions. It is a central discipline of chemistry and chemical engineering, allowing prediction of the direction of spontaneous chemical change and the position of chemical equilibrium in any reacting system. Being grounded in maths, it is often perceived as a difficult subject and many students are never fully comfortable with it.

Chemical Thermodynamics at a Glance provides a concise overview of the main principles of Chemical Thermodynamics for students studying chemistry and related courses at undergraduate level. Based on the highly successful and student friendly “at a Glance” approach, the information is presented in integrated, self contained double page spreads of text and illustrative material. The material developed in this book has been chosen to ensure the student grasps the essence of thermodynamics, so those wanting an accessible overview will find this book an ideal source of the information they require. In addition, the structured presentation will provide an invaluable aid to revision for students preparing for examinations.

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0 Symbols and Notation.

1 Thermodynamic Changes, Properties and Types of Function.

2 Integration in Thermodynamics.

3 Graphical Gradients and Intercepts.

4 The Ideal Gas.

5 Partial Derivatives ( Z/∂Y )x Simplified.

6 Logarithms and Exponentials.

7 Thermodynamics Conventions.

8 Heat and Work. First Law of Thermodynamics.

9 Work of Expansion.

10 Internal Energy, U and Enthalpy, H.

11 Reference States.

12 Bond Enthalpy (Energy).

13 Spontaneity, Entropy and Gibbs Energy.

14 Entropy and Second Law.

15 Calculation of Entropy.

16 The Third Law of Thermodynamics.

17 The Statistical Definition of Entropy.

18 Variation of G with T (dP = 0).

19 Variation of H and S with T (dP = 0).

20 Variation of G and S with P (dP = 0).

21 Variation of G with T for Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Phase.

22 Variation of H with T for Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Phase.

23 Effect of Pressure on Melting Point and Boiling Point: Normal Substances.

24 Effect of Pressure on Melting Point and Boiling Point: Water.

25 Phase Equilibria. Clapeyron Equation.

26 Clausius–Clapeyron Equation.

27 Open Systems. Chemical Potential. Chemical Reactions.

28 Coupled Reactions.

29 Chemical Potentials Applied to Physical Processes.

30 The Phase Rule.

31 Ideal and Real Gases. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.

32 Ideal Liquid Mixtures. Vapour Pressure and Raoult’s Law.

33 Ideal Liquid Mixtures. Real Liquid Mixtures.

34 Binary Liquid Mixtures.

35 Chemical Potentials and Equilibrium Relationships.

36 Interpretation of Logarithmic Term. Molality.

37 Thermodynamics of Ideal Mixing.

38 Chemical Potentials of Real Gases. Fugacity.

39 Chemical Potentials of Real Solutions. Activity.

40 Measurements of Equilibrium Constant, K.

41 Reaction Quotient, Q and Equilibrium Constant, K. Relationship Between _Go and Kp/po.

42 Chemical Equilibrium.

43 K for a Multiphase Reaction.

44 Reactions Not at Equilibrium.

45 Equilibrium Calculations for Reactions Not Initially at Equilibrium.

46 Gibbs–Helmholtz Equation.

47 Qualitative Interpretation of Van’t Hoff Equation. Coupled Reaction.

48 Variation of Equilibrium Constant, K, with Overall Total Pressure, P.

49 Le Chatelier’s Principle.

50 Gibbs–Duhem Equation.

51 Colligative Properties: Freezing Point.

52 Colligative Properties: Boiling Point.

53 Colligative Properties: Osmotic Pressure, _.

54 Core Thermodynamic Relationships.

Appendix A: The Logarithmic Function in Thermodynamics

"Presenting thermodynamics in an appealing and instructive way is an ongoing problem and this text addresses this issue in its clarity and useful organisation". (The Higher Education Academy Physical Sciences Centre, June 2008)

"This is a well-organised presentation of the standard material in a thermodynamics undergraduate course for chemists or chemical engineers." (Reviews)

  • Based on the highly successful “at a glance” series

  • Contains all the key principles required to gain a solid understanding of chemical thermodynamics, presented in a highly graphical way to aid assimilation, understanding and recall.

  • Structured presentation, with self contained double page spreads of linked text and illustrations, guides the student through the information in a way that complements bigger textbooks & provides a logical framework to aid revision