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Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 7th Edition

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Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 7th Edition

Neil D. Jespersen, James E. Brady, Alison Hyslop

ISBN: 978-1-118-80036-2 December 2013 1200 Pages

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Jespersen’s Chemistry 7th Edition provides readers with the necessary practice, support, instruction and assessment that is required for learning and teaching the content of a General Chemistry course. This text provides the forum for problem solving and concept mastery of chemical phenomena that leads to proficiency and success.  The Seventh Edition includes revisions to key content coverage areas and concepts and the addition of more Analyzing & Solving Multi-Concept problems and examples throughout the text. An increased emphasis has also been placed on the intimate relationship that exists between structure at the submicroscopic molecular level and the observable macroscopic properties of matter. Jespersen provides readers with a clear, concise and easy to understand General Chemistry resource. 

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0 A Very Brief History of Chemistry 1

0.1 Chemistry’s Important Concepts 2

0.2 Supernovas and the Elements 3

0.3 Elements and the Earth 5

0.4 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 7

0.5 Internal Structure of the Atom 8

Tools for Problem Solving 20

Review Questions and Problems 21

1 Scientific Measurements 24

1.1 Laws and Theories: The Scientific Method 25

1.2 Matter and Its Classifications 27

1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties 31

1.4 Measurement of Physical and Chemical Properties 32

1.5 The Uncertainty of Measurements 41

1.6 Dimensional Analysis 45

1.7 Density and Specific Gravity 49

Tools for Problem Solving 55

Review Questions and Problems 56

2 Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table 63

2.1 The Periodic Table 64

2.2 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 67

2.3 Molecules and Chemical Formulas 70

2.4 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 77

2.5 Ionic Compounds 80

2.6 Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds 86

2.7 Molecular Compounds 91

2.8 Nomenclature of Molecular Compounds 94

Tools for Problem Solving 99

Review Questions and Problems 100

3 The Mole and Stoichiometry 108

3.1 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number 109

3.2 The Mole, Formula Mass, and Stoichiometry 115

3.3 Chemical Formula and Percentage Composition 118

3.4 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas 120

3.5 Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations 129

3.6 Limiting Reactants 137

3.7 Theoretical Yield and Percentage Yield 141

Tools for Problem Solving 144

Review Questions and Problems 146

4 Molecular View of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 155

4.1 Describing Solutions 156

4.2 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 158

4.3 Equations for Ionic Reactions 160

4.4 Introducing Acids and Bases 164

4.5 Acid–Base Nomenclature 172

4.6 Double Replacement (Metathesis) Reactions 174

4.7 Molarity 184

4.8 Solution Stoichiometry 191

4.9 Titrations and Chemical Analysis 195

Tools for Problem Solving 203

Review Questions and Problems 204

5 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 212

5.1 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 213

5.2 Balancing Redox Equations 220

5.3 Acids as Oxidizing Agents 225

5.4 Redox Reactions of Metals 229

5.5 Molecular Oxygen as an Oxidizing Agent 233

5.6 Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions 237

Tools for Problem Solving 241

Review Questions and Problems 242

6 Energy and Chemical Change 251

6.1 Energy: The Ability to Do Work 252

6.2 Heat, Temperature, and Internal Energy 255

6.3 Measuring Heat 258

6.4 Energy of Chemical Reactions 264

6.5 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics 266

6.6 Heats of Reaction 270

6.7 Thermochemical Equations 275

6.8 Hess’s Law 277

6.9 Standard Heats of Reaction 283

Tools for Problem Solving 291

Review Questions and Problems 292

7 The Quantum Mechanical Atom 300

7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 301

7.2 Line Spectra and the Rydberg Equation 309

7.3 The Bohr Theory 311

7.4 The Wave Mechanical Model 314

7.5 Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms 319

7.6 Electron Spin 322

7.7 Energy Levels and Ground State Electron Configurations 324

7.8 Periodic Table and Ground State Electron Configurations 326

7.9 Atomic Orbitals: Shapes and Orientations 332

7.10 Periodic Table and Properties of the Elements 336

Tools for Problem Solving 346

Review Questions and Problems 346

8 The Basics of Chemical Bonding 352

8.1 Energy Requirements for Bond Formation 353

8.2 Ionic Bonding 354

8.3 Octet Rule and Electron Configurations of Ions 358

8.4 Lewis Symbols: Keeping Track of Valence Electrons 362

8.5 Covalent Bonds 364

8.6 Bond Polarity and Electronegativity 368

8.7 Lewis Structures 373

8.8 Resonance Structures 384

8.9 Covalent Compounds of Carbon 387

Tools for Problem Solving 395

Review Questions and Problems 396

9 Theories of Bonding and Structure 403

9.1 Five Basic Molecular Geometries 404

9.2 Molecular Shapes and the VSEPR Model 407

9.3 Molecular Structure and Dipole Moments 415

9.4 Valence Bond Theory 420

9.5 Hybrid Orbitals and Molecular Geometry 423

9.6 Hybrid Orbitals and Multiple Bonds 434

9.7 Molecular Orbital Theory Basics 440

9.8 Delocalized Molecular Orbitals 447

9.9 Bonding in Solids 448

9.10 Bonding of the Allotropes of the Elements 450

Tools for Problem Solving 456

Review Questions and Problems 458

10 Properties of Gases 465

10.1. A Molecular Look at Gases 466

10.2. Measurement of Pressure 467

10.3. Gas Laws 472

10.4. Stoichiometry Using Gas Volumes 478

10.5. Ideal Gas Law 482

10.6. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 490

10.7. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 501

10.8. Real Gases 504

Tools for Problem Solving 507

Review Questions and Problems 508

11 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids 515

11.1 Intermolecular Forces 516

11.2 Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties 525

11.3 Changes of State and Dynamic Equilibria 531

11.4 Vapor Pressures of Liquids and Solids 533

11.5 Boiling Points of Liquids 535

11.6 Energy and Changes of State 537

11.7 Phase Diagrams 541

11.8 Le Châtelier’s Principle and Changes of State 546

11.9 Determining Heats of Vaporization 547

11.10 Structures of Crystalline Solids 549

11.11 Determining the Structure of Solids 557

11.12 Crystal Types and Physical Properties 560

Tools for Problem Solving 565

Review Questions and Problems 566

12 Mixtures at the Molecular Level: Properties of Solutions 575

12.1. Intermolecular Forces and the Formation of Solutions 576

12.2. Heats of Solution 580

12.3. Solubility as a Function of Temperature 584

12.4. Henry’s Law 586

12.5. Concentration Units 588

12.6. Colligative Properties 595

12.7. Heterogeneous Mixtures 614

Tools for Problem Solving 618

Review Questions and Problems 619

13 Chemical Kinetics 625

13.1 Factors that Affect the Rate of Chemical Change 626

13.2 Measuring Reaction Rates 628

13.3 Rate Laws 634

13.4 Integrated Rate Laws 643

13.5 Molecular Basis of Collision Theory 654

13.6 Molecular Basis of Transition State Theory 657

13.7 Activation Energies 660

13.8 Mechanisms of Reactions 665

13.9 Catalysts 671

Tools for Problem Solving 675

Review Questions and Problems 676

14 Chemical Equilibrium 686

14.1 Dynamic Equilibrium in Chemical Systems 687

14.2 Equilibrium Laws 690

14.3 Equilibrium Laws Based on Pressures or Concentrations 694

14.4 Equilibrium Laws for Heterogeneous Reactions 698

14.5 Position of Equilibrium and the Equilibrium Constant 699

14.6 Equilibrium and Le Châtelier’s Principle 701

14.7 Calculating Equilibrium Constants 706

14.8 Using Equilibrium Constants to Calculate Concentrations 709

Tools for Problem Solving 722

Review Questions and Problems 724

15 Acids and Bases, A Molecular Look 731

15.1. Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases 732

15.2. Strengths of Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases 737

15.3. Periodic Trends in the Strengths of Acids 741

15.4. Lewis Acids and Bases 746

15.5. Acid–Base Properties of Elements and Their Oxides 750

15.6. Advanced Ceramics and Acid–Base Chemistry 753

Tools for Problem Solving 757

Review Questions and Problems 758

16 Acid–Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions 762

16.1 Water, pH, and “p” Notation 763

16.2 pH of Strong Acid and Base Solutions 767

16.3 Ionization Constants, Ka and Kb 769

16.4 Determining Ka and Kb Values 773

16.5 pH of Weak Acid and Weak Base Solutions 776

16.6 Acid–Base Properties of Salt Solutions 781

16.7 Buffer Solutions 785

16.8 Polyprotic Acids 792

16.9 Acid–Base Titrations 798

Tools for Problem Solving 807

Review Questions and Problems 808

17 Solubility and Simultaneous Equilibria 816

17.1 Equilibria in Solutions of Slightly Soluble Salts 817

17.2 Solubility of Basic Salts Is Influenced by Acids 828

17.3 Equilibria in Solutions of Metal Oxides and Sulfides 831

17.4 Selective Precipitation 834

17.5 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 841

17.6 Complexation and Solubility 845

Tools for Problem Solving 848

Review Questions and Problems 848

18 Thermodynamics 855

18.1 First Law of Thermodynamics 856

18.2 Spontaneous Change 860

18.3 Entropy 862

18.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 867

18.5 Third Law of Thermodynamics 871

18.6 Standard Free Energy Change, Δ° 874

18.7 Maximum Work and Δ876

18.8 Free Energy and Equilibrium 880

18.9 Equilibrium Constants and Δ° 886

18.10 Bond Energies 890

Tools for Problem Solving 894

Review Questions and Problems 895

19 Electrochemistry 904

19.1 Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells 905

19.2 Cell Potentials 910

19.3 Utilizing Standard Reduction Potentials 917

19.4 °cell and Δ° 923

19.5 Cell Potentials and Concentrations 926

19.6 Electricity 932

19.7 Electrolytic Cells 939

19.8 Electrolysis Stoichiometry 945

19.9 Practical Applications of Electrolysis 949

Tools for Problem Solving 954

Review Questions and Problems 954

20 Nuclear Reactions and Their Role in Chemistry 962

20.1 Conservation of Mass and Energy 963

20.2 Nuclear Binding Energy 965

20.3 Radioactivity 967

20.4 Band of Stability 973

20.5 Transmutation 977

20.6 Measuring Radioactivity 980

20.7 Medical and Analytical Applications of Radionuclides 984

20.8 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 986

Tools for Problem Solving 995

Review Questions and Problems 995

21 Metal Complexes 1002

21.1 Complex Ions 1003

21.2 Metal Complex Nomenclature 1009

21.3 Coordination Number and Structure 1011

21.4 Isomers of Metal Complexes 1013

21.5 Bonding in Metal Complexes 1017

21.6 Biological Functions of Metal Ions 1024

Tools for Problem Solving 1027

Review Questions and Problems 1028

22 Organic Compounds, Polymers, and Biochemicals 1033

22.1 Organic Structures and Functional Groups 1034

22.2 Hydrocarbons: Structure, Nomenclature and Reactions 1039

22.3 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen 1046

22.4 Organic Derivatives of Ammonia 1054

22.5 Organic Polymers 1056

22.6 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 1063

22.7 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and RNA 1072

Tools for Problem Solving 1077

Review Questions and Problems 1079

Appendices

Appendix A: Review of Mathematics A-1

Appendix B: Answers to Practice Exercises and Selected Review Problems A-5

Appendix C: Tables of Selected Data A-28

Glossary G-1

Index I-1