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Chemistry 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 eBookPLUS & Print

Chemistry 2 VCE Units 3 and 4 eBookPLUS & Print

Neale Taylor, Robert Stokes, Angela Stubbs, Wan Ng, Maida Derbogosian

ISBN: 978-0-730-32909-1

Jan 2017, Jacaranda

448 pages

Select type: Paperback

Product not available for purchase

About eBookPLUS and studyON ix

How to use this book x

Acknowledgements xii

UNIT 3

Area of study 1

Chapter 1 Choosing fuels 2

Energy and fuels 3

What is energy? 3

Energy from common fuels 3

Thermochemical equations 4

Different forms of energy 5

Energy conversions 5

Energy converters 8

Energy use in society 9

Global energy use 9

Renewable and non-renewable resources 9

Choosing energy sources 11

Non-renewable fuels 12

Fossil fuels 12

Coal 12

Petroleum 13

Natural gas 14

Biofuels 16

Petrodiesel versus biodiesel — comparing fuels 17

Producing petrodiesel 17

Biodiesel production 19

Energy use and the environment 22

The effect of use of fossil fuels on the environment 22

Sustainable energy 24

Chapter review 26

Chapter 2 Energy calculations 31

Energy changes in chemical reactions 32

Exothermic and endothermic reactions 33

Thermochemical equations 34

Calculating ΔH values from two or more related reactions 37

Working with gases 38

Specifying the large-scale behaviour of gases 39

Gas pressure 39

Temperature 40

Volume 41

Laws to describe the behaviour of gases 41

The combined gas equation 43

Standard conditions for measuring gases 44

Molar gas volume and Avogadro’s hypothesis 44

The universal gas equation 46

Mass – volume stoichiometry 47

Volume – volume stoichiometry 49

Applying volume stoichiometry to thermochemistry 50

Fuels and greenhouse gases 51

How do we obtain the energy output of a fuel? 54

Chapter review 57

Chapter 3 Converting chemical energy to electrical energy 66

Redox reactions 67

Frog power? 67

Oxidation numbers 68

Rules for determining oxidation numbers 68

Using oxidation numbers 69

Identifying redox reactions 70

Half-equations and redox equations 72

Harnessing redox reactions 73

Galvanic cells in the laboratory 76

Types of half-cell 77

Standard electrode potentials 78

Use of standard half-cell reduction potentials 81

The unpredictability of the rate of electrochemical reactions 84

Cells and batteries 85

Factors affecting selection of cells 85

Primary cells 86

The dry cell 86

The alkaline zinc/manganese dioxide cell 87

Button cells 88

Lithium cells 89

Fuel cells 91

Where are fuel cells used? 91

Fuel cell design 91

Types of fuel cell 92

Environmental and safety considerations 96

Chapter review 98

Area of study 2

Chapter 4 Electrolysis 107

Metals through the ages 108

Electrolysis — the process 108

Electrolytic cells 109

Comparing galvanic and electrolytic cells 110

Electrolysis of molten ionic compounds 112

Electrolysis of water 113

Electrolysis of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds 113

Predicting reactions during electrolysis of aqueous solutions 113

Factors affecting electrolysis of aqueous solutions 115

The effect of concentration 115

The nature of the electrolyte 116

The nature of the electrodes 117

Commercial applications of electrolysis 118

Producing aluminium 118

Industrial electrolysis of brine 120

Electroplating 121

Calculations in electrolysis — Faraday’s laws 123

Michael Faraday 123

Faraday’s first law of electrolysis 123

Faraday’s second law of electrolysis 124

Applying Faraday’s laws of electrolysis 125

Faraday’s laws in industry 127

Secondary cells — rechargeable batteries 128

Lead–acid accumulator 128

Nickel metal hydride rechargeable cell 131

Rechargeable lithium ion cell 131

Factors affecting battery life 133

Chapter review 135

Chapter 5 Rates of reactions 142

How does a chemical reaction occur? 143

Collision theory 144

Measuring reaction rates 144

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution curves 145

Factors that affect the rate of a reaction 146

Concentration 146

Pressure 146

Temperature 146

Catalysts 147

Catalytic converters — catalysts in car exhausts 149

The effect of surface area 149

Chapter review 151

Chapter 6 Equilibrium systems 155

Chemical equilibrium 156

The equilibrium law 156

A closer look at equilibrium constants 158

The dynamic nature of equilibrium 159

Dynamic equilibrium and collision theory 160

The distinction between rate and extent 160

Calculations involving the equilibrium constant 160

How can we tell if a reaction is at equilibrium? 164

Reaction quotient, Q, and the equilibrium constant, Kc 165

Representing chemical equilibrium graphically 165

Making changes to equilibrium mixtures — Le Châtelier’s principle 167

Adding or removing a substance that is involved in the reaction 168

Explaining Le Châtelier’s principle mathematically 169

The effect of changing volume 170

The effect of changing temperature 172

The yield of a chemical reaction 173

Le Châtelier’s principle and industrial chemicals 174

Making ammonia — applying equilibrium and rate principles in industry 174

The Haber process 175

An important biological application of equilibrium 177

Transport of oxygen by the blood 177

Carbon monoxide poisoning 178

Treating victims of carbon monoxide poisoning 179

Chapter review 180

UNIT 4

Area of study 3

Chapter 7 Key practical skills and communication 190

Key practical skills in chemistry 191

Preparing for your experiment 192

Logbook 192

Which question will you choose? 192

Formulating your hypothesis and aim 193

Planning your experiment 193

Performing your experiment 195

Analysing your data 196

Producing your poster 196

Dealing with variables 197

Independent variables 197

Dependent variables 198

Controlled variables 198

More about variables 198

Dealing with variables experimentally 198

Working with figures 199

Scientific notation 199

Significant figures 200

How do we count significant figures? 201

How are significant figures determined experimentally? 201

Significant figures and calculations 202

An ambiguous case 202

Errors and uncertainties 203

Reliability and accuracy 204

Tables and graphs 204

Interpreting line graphs 205

Working safely 206

General safety rules 206

Risk assessments 207

Acknowledging sources 208

Bibliographies 209

Chapter review 211

Area of study 1

Chapter 8 Structures and nomenclature of organic compounds 212

Carbon: a unique element 213

Organic chemistry 213

Hydrocarbons 215

Alkanes 215

Alkenes 220

Alkynes 222

Carbon rings 223

Functional groups 224

Alcohols 225

Aldehydes 227

Ketones 227

Carboxylic acids 228

Esters 230

Amines 232

Amides 233

Haloalkanes 234

Compounds containing more than one functional group 234

Chapter review 236

Chapter 9 Properties and reactions of organic compounds 241

Physical and chemical properties of organic compounds 242

Properties and bonding 242

Bonding in and between organic molecules 242

Isomers — same but different 243

Structural isomerism 244

Stereoisomerism 245

Physical properties of hydrocarbons 248

Alkanes 248

Flashpoint 249

Alkenes and alkynes 250

How do functional groups affect physical properties? 250

Alcohols 251

Carboxylic acids 252

Aldehydes, ketones and esters 252

Amines and amides 253

Reactions of organic compounds 253

Reactions of alkanes and alkenes 254

Combustion of alkanes and alkenes 254

Substitution reactions of alkanes 254

Cracking 256

Addition reactions of alkenes 256

Addition polymerisation 257

Reactions of haloalkanes 259

Reactions of alcohols 259

Reactions of alcohols — summary 260

Reactions of carboxylic acids 261

Formation of esters 261

Polyesters 262

Reaction of carboxylic acids with amines 263

Reactions of carboxylic acids — summary 263

Organic pathways 264

Measuring the efficiency of reactions 264

Percentage yield 264

Atom economy 265

Chapter review 267

Chapter 10 Analysis of organic compounds 274

Chemical analysis 275

Spectroscopy 275

Mass spectrometry 275

Infrared spectroscopy 278

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 283

Chromatography 293

Principles of chromatography 293

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 294

Combining techniques 300

Volumetric analysis 302

Standard solutions 303

How do we know when to stop a titration? 304

More about these titration curves 307

Stoichiometry and volumetric analysis 308

Some examples of volumetric analysis 308

Sources of error 311

Chapter review 312

Area of study 2

Chapter 11 Vitamins and proteins 322

Eating chemicals 323

Vital vitamins 324

Proteins in the body 327

Amino acids — building blocks of proteins 328

Formation of proteins 331

Structure of proteins 332

Enzymes as protein catalysts 333

The structure and action of enzymes 333

Coenzymes — enzyme helpers 334

Factors affecting the action of enzymes 335

Digestion of protein 337

What happens to digested protein? 338

Chapter review 340

Chapter 12 Food and energy 346

Energy and food 347

Types of carbohydrates 347

Monosaccharides and disaccharides 347

Polysaccharides 351

Digestion of carbohydrates 354

What happens to digested carbohydrates? 355

Lactose intolerance 356

Are all carbohydrates equally beneficial? 357

Fats and oils 358

Properties and reactions of fats and oils 360

Oxidation of food 361

Essential fatty acids 362

Digestion of fats and oils 362

Energy in foods 364

Nutrition information labels 364

Measuring energy changes in chemical reactions — calorimetry 364

Solution calorimeter 365

Bomb calorimeter 367

Chapter review 370

Practical investigations ONLINE ONLY 376

Answers 377

Glossary 421

Index 427

Periodic table of the elements 432