Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionality of circuits has increased. This book consists of five chapters covering the chemicals and sequences used in processing, from cleaning to etching, the role and impact of their purity, along with the materials used in “Front End Of the Line” which corresponds to the heart and performance of individual transistors, then moving on to the “Back End Of the Line” which is related to the interconnection of all the transistors. Finally, the need for specific functionalization also requires key knowledge on surface treatments and chemical management to allow new applications.
1. Chemistry in the “Front End of the Line” (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts, François Martin, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Véronique Carron and Yannick Le Tiec.
2. Chemistry in Interconnects, Vincent Jousseaume, Paul-Henri Haumesser, Carole Pernel, Jeffery Butterbaugh, Sylvain Maîtrejean and Didier Louis.
3. The Chemistry of Wet Surface Preparation: Cleaning, Etching and Drying, Yannick Le Tiec and Martin Knotter.
4. The Use and Management of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics, Christiane Gottschalk, Kevin Mclaughlin, Julie Cren, Catherine Peyne and Patrick Valenti.
5. Surface Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: Application to Biosensors, Antoine Hoang, Gilles Marchand, Guillaume Nonglaton, Isabelle Texier-Nogues and Francoise Vinet.
About the Authors
Yannick Le Tiec is a technical expert at CEA-Leti, Minatec since 2002. He is a CEA-Leti assignee at IBM, Albany (NY) to develop the advanced 14 nm CMOS node and the FDSOI technology. He held different technical positions from the advanced 300 mm SOI CMOS pilot line to different assignments within SOITEC for advanced wafer development and later within INES to optimize solar cell ramp-up and yield. He has been part of the ITRS Front End technical working group at ITRS since 2008.
Chapter 1. Chemistry in the "Front End of the Line" (FEOL): Deposits, Gate Stacks, Epitaxy and Contacts 1
François MARTIN, Jean-Michel HARTMANN, Véronique CARRON and Yannick LE TIEC
1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Arrangement of the gate 3
1.3. Chemistry of crystalline materials 19
1.4. Contact areas between the gate and the "source" and "drain" 38
1.5. General conclusion 57
1.6. List of Abbreviations 58
1.7. Bibliography 59
Chapter 2. Chemistry in Interconnects 81
Vincent JOUSSEAUME, Paul-Henri HAUMESSER, Carole PERNEL, Jeffery BUTTERBAUGH, Sylvain MAÎTREJEAN and Didier LOUIS
2.1. Introduction 81
2.2. Interconnects: generalities and background 83
2.3. Dielectric deposits 99
2.4. Deposition and properties of metal layers for interconnect structures 122
2.5. Cleaning process for copper interconnects 144
2.6. General conclusions and perspectives 161
2.7. List of Abbreviations 164
2.8. Bibliography 165
Chapter 3. The Chemistry of Wet Surface Preparation: Cleaning, Etching and Drying 187
Yannick LE TIEC and Martin KNOTTER
3.1. Introduction 187
3.2. Cleaning 188
3.3. Wet etching 202
3.4. Rinsing and drying 214
3.5. Conclusion 224
3.6. List of Abbreviations 225
3.7. Bibliography 225
Chapter 4. The Use and Management of Chemical Fluids in Microelectronics 233
Christiane GOTTSCHALK, Kevin MCLAUGHLIN, Julie CREN, Catherine PEYNE and Patrick VALENTI
4.1. Ultrapure water 233
4.2. Gases for semiconductors 251
4.3. Dissolved gases 268
4.4. High-purity chemicals 283
4.5. Waste management 290
4.6. List of Abbreviations 301
4.7. Bibliography 303
Chapter 5. Surface Functionalization for Micro- and Nanosystems: Application to Biosensors 309
Antoine HOANG, Gilles MARCHAND, Guillaume NONGLATON, Isabelle TEXIER-NOGUES and Francoise VINET
5.1. Introduction 309
5.2. Materials 310
5.3. Functionalization process 317
5.4. Molecule and macromolecule immobilization 332
5.5. Analytes capture 340
5.6. Conclusion 348
5.7. List of Abbreviations 349
5.8. Bibliography 349
List of Authors 361