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Child Psychology: Development in a Changing Society, 5th Edition

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Child Psychology: Development in a Changing Society, 5th Edition

Robin Harwood, Scott A. Miller, Ross Vasta

ISBN: 978-0-470-46085-6 November 2008 784 Pages

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This new fifth edition captures the excitement and relevance of child psychology at the beginning of the 21st century; a theme that is exemplified in the text's new subtitle: Child Development in a Changing Society. In addition to extensive research coverage, each chapter includes an additional section that relates the chapter subject to social and cultural contexts, or implications of research for social policy, public practice, or societal change. This new edition places children, child development, and the contexts in which development occurs at the center of the discourse. Thus, this edition has a strong balance of theory, research, and real-world application.

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1 Frameworks for Development

Child Development in Space and Time 4

Key Issues In Child Development 12

RESEARCH & SOCIETY The Social Construction of Childhood 13

Child Development Research in Applied Contexts 17

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Outreach Liaison 18

Theoretical Perspectives—An Overview 19

APPLICATIONS Theories as Everyday Explanations for Behavior 33

2 Studying Child Development and Its Contexts

Studying Children 40

Methods Used to Study Children 42

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Cross-Cultural Psychologist 48

Studying Development 52

APPLICATIONS Wise Consumers of Research on Development 54

Issues in the Study of Children 56

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Studying AIDS Orphans in Africa 60

3 The Biological Context of Development

Mechanisms of Inheritance 68

Genes and Behavior 73

Interaction of Genes and Environment 77

Genetic Disorders 81

RESEARCH & SOCIETY the Human Genome Project 86

Pathways to Parenthood 91

APPLICATIONS Journey to Parenthood 94

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Adoption Social Worker 96


4 Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn

Pregnancy 106

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Technology and Gender Selection 112

Stages of Prenatal Development 113

Prenatal Environmental Influences 118

Birth 130

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Certified Professional Midwife 132

The Newborn 135

APPLICATIONS Caring for Preterm and Low-Birthweight Infants in the NICU 138

5 Early Capacities in Infancy

The Organized Infant 150

APPLICATIONS Sleep in Cultural Perspective 152

Motor Development 157

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Infant Physical Therapist 162

Perceptual Development 163

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Infants’ Perception of Motion 174

6 The Brain, Physical Growth, and Health

The Brain 192

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Imaging the Brain 198

Physical Growth 200

Physical Health in Infancy 205

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Family Nutritionist 210

Physical Health in Childhood and Adolescence 215

APPLICATIONS Just Say No? Teens, Sexuality, and Society 220


7 Piaget and Vygotsky

Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 231

Cognition During Infancy: The Sensorimotor Period 233

Thought in the Preschooler: The Preoperational Period 241

APPLICATIONS Selecting Developmentally Appropriate Play Materials 244

Middle-Childhood Intelligence: The Concrete Operational Period 248

Adolescent and Adult: The Formal Operational Period 251

Vygotsky and the Sociocultural Approach 255

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Weaving Generations Together: Evolving Creativity in the Maya of Chiapas 258

Piaget and Vygotsky on Language and Thought 262

Impacts of Piaget and Vygotsky on Education 264

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with an Early Childhood Educator 267

Comparing the Cognitive-Developmental and Sociocultural Approaches 267

8 Information Processing and Core Knowledge Approaches

The Information Processing Approach to Cognition 282

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Children’s Eyewitness Testimony 289

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Child Therapist 290

Developmental Changes in Memory 290

Cognitive Tools 290

Problem Solving 297

The Core Knowledge Approach to Cognition 307

Theory of Mind 313

APPLICATIONS Brains in a Box: Do New Age Toys Deliver on the Promise? 314

9 Intelligence and Schooling

Intelligence: IQ Testing and the Psychometric Approach 328

Individual and Group Differences in IQ 331

APPLICATIONS Reducing Stereotype Threat in Minority Populations 336

Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence 338

Schooling: Variations and Effects 343

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Culture, Schooling, and the Mind 346

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Special Educator 355

Culture, Diversity, and Schooling 358

10 Language and Communication

Components of Language 376

Theories of Language Development 378

Preverbal Communication in Infancy 383

Semantics: First Words and Vocabulary 385

Grammar: Communicating in Sentences 392

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Speech-Language Pathologist 393

Development of Pragmatics: Socially Appropriate Use of Language 399

Contexts That Influence Language Development 402

APPLICATIONS Teaching Children to Read 406

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Bilingual Education 410


11 Social and Emotional Worlds of Infants and Young Children

Temperament 428

Emotions and Early Communication 432

Attachment to Others 440

APPLICATIONS Promoting Healthy Parent-Infant Relationships 445

Attachment Relationships in a Changing World 448

RESEARCH & SOCIETY In the Child’s Best Interest? 451

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a CASA Volunteer Supervisor 452

Social and Emotional Development in Contexts of Risk 453

12 Self and Identity

Theories of the Self 467

Self-Knowledge 469

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Culture and the Self 470

Self-Control 475

Self-Evaluation and Self-Esteem 482

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a School Guidance Counselor 493

Identity and Society 493

APPLICATIONS Possible Selves and Academic Achievement 497

13 Sex Differences and Gender Role Development

Sex Differences: Perceived and Real 513

APPLICATIONS Should Schools Teach Visual-Spatial Skills? 518

Influences on Sex Differences and Gender Role Development 522

RESEARCH & SOCIETY When Genotype and Phenotype Don’t Match 524

The Child’s Active Participation in Gender Role Development 532

Gender Role Development 535

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with Men in Nontraditional Roles 536

Development of Sexual Relationships and Behavior 539

14 Moral Development

Theories of Moral Development 552

Influences on Moral Development 560

RESEARCH & SOCIETY When Are We Obligated to Help Others? Cultural Differences in Children’s Perceptions 561

Prosocial Behavior 564

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Marriage and Family Therapist 565

Determinants of Prosocial Behavior 569

Aggression 572

Controlling Childhood Aggression 578

APPLICATIONS Intervening in the Lives of Aggressive Children 582

15 Relationships with Peers

Peer Sociability 596

Peer Acceptance 604

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Bullying and Victimization in School 608

APPLICATIONS Enhancing Peer Competence among Shy Children 610

The Social Contexts of Peer Relationships 612

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Community Mental Health Practitioner 618

16 Families and Society

Parenting Styles 626

RESEARCH & SOCIETY Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parental Acceptance and Rejection 630

The Family as a Social System 633

Families in Social Context 638

APPLICATIONS Building Tolerance in a Diverse Society 646

Families in a Changing Society 648

CONVERSATIONS Conversations with a Child Protective Services Administrator 654

Glossary G1

References R1

Author Index I1

Subject Index I20


New lead author Robin Harwood.
Emphasis on the contextualist view of human development. In addition to discussing effects of schools, families, and peers in separate chapters, contextual factors are also considered.