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Chromatographic Methods in Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology


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Chromatographic Methods in Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology

Roger Bertholf (Editor), Ruth Winecker (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-02309-9 February 2007 308 Pages

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This book aims to fill the gap that exists between theoretical treatments of chromatography, and clinical chemistry and toxicology texts, which focus almost exclusively on clinical relevance and applications. Chromatography has a vast array of clinical applications, and though the chromatographic methods were first introduced decades ago, new applications of this technology are being used to explore previously inaccessible frontiers in clinical diagnostics and toxicological testing. An up-to-date book devoted to clinical and toxicological applications of chromatographic methods will serve as an instructional and reference text, useful to students, laboratory technicians, and researchers.

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List of Contributors.

1. Quality Assurance, Quality Control and Method Validation in Chromatographic Applications (Michele L. Merves and Bruce A. Goldberger).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 History.

1.3 Definition of Quality Assurance and Quality Control.

1.4 Professional Organizations.

1.5 Internal Quality Assurance and Control.

1.6 External Quality Assurance.


2. Liquid Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Measurement of Anabolic Steroids (Don H. Catlin, Yu-Chen Chang, Borislav Starcevic and Caroline K. Hatton).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 LC-MS Analysis of Synthetic Steroids or Animal Samples.

2.3 LC-MS Analysis of Natural Androgens in Human Samples.

2.4 Conclusion.


3. High-performance Liquid Chromatography in the Analysis of Active Ingredients in Herbal Nutritional Supplements (Amitava Dasgupta).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 St Johnâ??s Wort.

3.3 Herbal Supplements with Digoxin-like Immunoreactivity.

3.4 Herbal Remedies and Abnormal Liver Function Tests.

3.5 Ginkgo Biloba.

3.6 Echinacea.

3.7 Valerian.

3.8 Feverfew.

3.9 Garlic.

3.10 Ephedra (Ma Huang) and Related Drugs.

3.11 Conclusions.


4. Measurement of Plasma L-DOPA and L-Tyrosine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography as a Tumor Marker in Melanoma (Thierry Le Bricon, Sabine Letellier, Konstantin Stoitchkov and Jean-Pierre Garnier).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Melanogenesis.

4.3 L-DOPA Alone.

4.4 L-DOPA/L-Tyrosine Ratio.

4.5 Conclusion.


5. Hypersensitive Measurement of Proteins by Capillary Isoelectric Focusing and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Feng Zhou and Murray Johnston).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 A Robust CIEF-RPLC Interface.

5.3 First-Generation CIEF-RPLC-MS System for Proteins.

5.4 Second-Generation CIEF-RPLC-MS System.

5.5 Future Improvements.



6. Chromatographic Measurement of Transferrin Glycoforms for Detecting Alcohol Abuse and Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (Anders Helander).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Transferrin Microheterogeneity.

6.3 Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin (CDT).

6.4 Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG).

6.5 Analytical Methods for Transferrin Microheterogeneity.

6.6 Chromatographic Methods for CDT.

6.7 Chromatographic Methods for CDG.

6.8 Summary and Conclusions.


7. Chromatographic Measurements of Catecholamines and Metanephrines (Eric C. Y. Chan and Paul C. L. Ho).

7.1 Background.

7.2 Analytical Measurements of Catecholamines and Metanephrines.

7.3 Early Methods.

7.4 Current Chromatographic Methods.

7.5 Practical Considerations for the Stability of Urinary Catecholamines and Metanephrines During Storage.

7.6 Future Developments.



8. Chromatographic Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (Larry A. Broussard).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 General Considerations.

8.3 Intended Use.

8.4 Volatility of Compounds.

8.5 Sample Collection, Handling and Storage.

8.6 Headspace Gas Chromatographic Methods.

8.7 Columns and Detectors.

8.8 Identification, Quantitation and Confirmation.

8.9 Ethanol and Other Volatile Alcohols.

8.10 Inhalants and Screening for Multiple VOCs.

8.11 Interpretation.

8.12 Conclusion.


9. Chromatographic Techniques for Measuring Organophosphorus Pesticides (H. Wollersen and F. Musshoff).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPs).

9.3 Conclusion.


10. Chromatographic Analysis of Nerve Agents (Jeri D. Ropero-Miller).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Neuromuscular Blockers.

10.3 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: Saxitoxin.

10.4 Summary.


11. History and Pharmacology of c-Hydroxybutyric Acid (Laureen Marinetti).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 History of Illicit Use of GHB.

11.3 Clinical Use of GHB in Humans.

11.4 History of Illicit Use of GBL and 1,4BD.

11.5 Distribution and Pharmacokinetics of GHB, GBL and 1,4BD.

11.6 GHB Interpretation Issues and Post-mortem Production.

11.7 Analysis for GHB, GBL and 1,4BD.


12. Liquid Chromatography with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection for Element Speciation: Clinical and Toxicological Applications (Katarzyna Wrobel, Kazimierz Wrobel and Joseph A. Caruso).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Liquid Chromatography with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection.

12.3 Analytical Applications of Clinical and Toxicological Relevance.

12.4 Conclusions and Future Trends.

12.5 Abbreviations.


13. Applications of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to the Determination of Toxic Metals (Suresh K. Aggarwal, Robert L. Fitzgerald and David A. Herold).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Instrumentation.

13.3 Experimental Procedure.

13.4 GC-MS Studies.

13.5 Conclusions.