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Chromatography: Principles and Instrumentation

Chromatography: Principles and Instrumentation

Mark F. Vitha

ISBN: 978-1-119-27090-4

Aug 2016

280 pages

$79.99

Description

Provides students and practitioners with a solid grounding in the theory of chromatography, important considerations in its application, and modern instrumentation.

  • Highlights the primary variables that practitioners can manipulate, and how those variables influence chromatographic separations
  • Includes multiple figures that illustrate the application of these methods to actual, complex chemical samples
  • Problems are embedded throughout the chapters as well as at the end of each chapter so that students can check their understanding before continuing on to new sections
  • Each section includes numerous headings and subheadings, making it easy for faculty and students to refer to and use the information within each chapter selectively
  • The focused, concise nature makes it useful for a modular approach to analytical chemistry courses

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PREFACE ix

1. Fundamentals of Chromatography 1

1.1 Theory 1

1.1.1 Component Separation 3

1.1.2 Retention Factor 6

1.1.3 Separation 11

1.1.4 Resolution and Theoretical Plates 13

1.2 Band Broadening 20

1.2.1 Diffusion 21

1.2.2 Linear Velocity 23

1.2.3 Broadening in Open Tubes with No Stationary Phase and No Retention 24

1.2.4 Broadening in Open Tubes with a Stationary Phase 28

1.2.5 Broadening in a Packed Column 34

1.2.6 Putting It All Together 43

1.2.7 Practical Consequences of Broadening Theory 45

1.3 General Resolution Equation 47

1.4 Peak Symmetry 51

1.5 Key Operating Variables 51

1.6 Instrumentation 53

1.7 Practice of The Technique 53

1.7.1 Quantitation 53

1.7.2 Internal Standards and the Method of Standard Additions 55

1.8 Emerging Trends and Applications 55

1.9 Summary 55

Problems 56

References 59

Further Reading 59

2. Gas Chromatography 61

2.1 Theory of Gas Chromatographic Separations 61

2.1.1 GC Columns and Partitioning 64

2.2 Key Operating Variables that Control Retention 64

2.2.1 Adjusting Retention Time: Temperature 65

2.2.2 Adjusting Retention Time: Temperature Programming 67

2.2.3 Adjusting Retention Time: Mobile Phase Flow Rate 69

2.2.4 Adjusting Retention Time: The Column and the Stationary Phase 72

2.2.5 Adjusting Retention Time: Summary 78

2.2.6 Measures of Retention 78

2.3 Gas Chromatography Instrumentation 82

2.3.1 Carrier Gas Supply 83

2.3.2 The Injection Port and the Solute Injection Process 83

2.3.3 Oven/Column Compartment 97

2.3.4 Detectors 98

2.4 A More Detailed Look at Stationary Phase Chemistry: Kovats Indices and Mcreynolds Constants 111

2.4.1 Kovats Retention Indices 111

2.4.2 Stationary Phase Selection 120

2.5 Gas Chromatography in Practice 124

2.5.1 Syringe Washing 124

2.5.2 Controls and Blanks/Ghost Peaks 124

2.5.3 Autosamplers 125

2.5.4 GC Septa 125

2.5.5 Qualitative Analysis 126

2.5.6 Quantitative Analysis 126

2.5.7 Derivatization 128

2.5.8 High-Speed GC 128

2.5.9 Tandem GC 129

2.5.10 Microfabricated GC 129

2.6 A “Real-World” Application of Gas Chromatography 131

2.6.1 GC and International Oil Trading 131

2.7 Summary 136

Problems 137

References 143

Further Reading 144

3. Liquid Chromatography 145

3.1 Examples of Liquid Chromatography Analyses 145

3.2 Scope of Liquid Chromatography 147

3.3 History of LC 148

3.3.1 Modern Packing Materials 149

3.4 Modes of Liquid Chromatography 152

3.4.1 Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography (NPLC) 152

3.4.2 Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography (RPLC) 154

3.4.3 Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEX) 165

3.4.4 Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) 173

3.4.5 Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) 175

3.4.6 Affinity Chromatography 178

3.5 HPLC Instrumentation 180

3.5.1 The Proportioning Valve 181

3.5.2 Mixing Chamber 181

3.5.3 Pumps 181

3.5.4 Injection 183

3.5.5 The Column and Particles 185

3.5.6 Guard Columns 187

3.5.7 Detectors 188

3.6 Specific Uses of and Advances in Liquid Chromatography 201

3.6.1 Chiral Separations 202

3.6.2 Preparative-Scale Chromatography 207

3.6.3 Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) for High-Speed Separations 212

3.6.4 Tandem-Column Liquid Chromatography 216

3.6.5 Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography (2D-LC) 218

3.7 Application of LC – Analysis of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Groundwater 224

3.7.1 Sampling 225

3.7.2 Analysis Method for 21 Antibiotics – Sample Pretreatment 225

3.7.3 Use of Internal Standards and Other Quality Assurance Issues 227

3.7.4 LC Analyses 228

3.7.5 Mass Spectrometric Selected Ion Monitoring Detection 228

3.7.6 Results 229

3.8 Summary 230

Problems 230

References 232

SOLUTIONS 237

Index 263

"Mark Vitha has written a book that will appeal to students, teachers, and perhaps professional analysts who need a refresher in the fundamentals of chromatography. The book consists of three sections of about equal length dealing with separation theory, gas chromatography (GC), and liquid chromatography (LC). The section on theory is especially strong. Vitha is an experienced educator who understands the undergraduate audience and explains concepts clearly. He uses analogies to help students with abstract ideas, something I have seen little of in the sciences. He also freely uses ideas and terms from thermodynamics that can be grasped by students who have studied physical chemistry".
"Graduate students might want to use this book, with additional depth provided by their instructors and current and classic papers (many are referenced). Graduate students need more depth in areas such as solvent theory and the selection of solvents, for example, than is given in this book".
"I taught instrumental methods to undergraduate students for many years using encyclopedic full-course texts. I wish there had been as fine a pedagogical tool as this more-focused new textbook at that time". (LC/GC- December 16)