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Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and Maintaining Students' Cooperation, 7th Edition

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Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and Maintaining Students' Cooperation, 7th Edition

James S. Cangelosi

ISBN: 978-1-118-80364-6 October 2013 416 Pages

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Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and Maintaining Students' Cooperation contains a wealth of information about classroom management strategies that teachers successfully use to lead students to be on-task and engaged in lessons. The strategies are based on extensive school teaching experiences as well as on the findings of numerous studies in learning theory, social interaction, communication, developmental psychology, multicultural education, behavioristic psychology, motivation, student engagement, and violence prevention.

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Preface v


CHAPTER 1 The Complex Art of Teaching 3

Chapter 1’s Goal and Objectives 3

Teaching Experiences: Satisfying or Frustrating 3

Teaching Cycles 4

Allocated Time and Transition Time 9

Student Behaviors 9

On-Task, Engaged, Off-Task, and Disruptive 9

Prosocial and Antisocial 11

Taking Charge in Your Classroom 12

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 1 12

Transitional Activity from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2 16

CHAPTER 2 Schools of Thought and the Research Bases for Classroom Management Strategies 18

Chapter 2’s Goal and Objectives 18

Students Need to Be Taught to Cooperate 19

Implications from Learning Theory 20

Implications from Studies of Social Interaction and Communications 27

Critical Communication Styles and Classroom Climates 27

True Dialogues Instead of IRE Cycles 28

Other Implications Regarding Communication Styles 34

Implications from Studies in Developmental Psychology and Multicultural Education 34

Implications from Behavioristic Psychology 37

Learned Responses 37

Behavior Modification 38

Isolated Behaviors and Behavior Patterns 38

Positive Reinforcers 39

Destructive Positive Reinforcers 40

Contrived versus Naturally Occurring Punishment 42

Differences Between the Effects of Naturally Occurring and Contrived Punishment 42

Unwittingly Administered Punishment 44

Destructive Punishment 44

Negative Reinforcement 45

Implications from Studies Focusing on Motivation and Student Engagement 46

Student Disinterest 46

Intrinsic Motivation 46

Extrinsic Motivation 46

The Preferred Type of Motivation 48

Implications from Studies Focusing on Violence Prevention in Schools 48

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 2 49

Transitional Activity from Chapter 2 to Chapter 3 53


CHAPTER 3 Establishing a Favorable Climate for Cooperation 57

Chapter 3’s Goal and Objectives 57

Creating a Businesslike Climate 57

The Advantage of a Businesslike Atmosphere 57

The Meaning of Businesslike 58

Five Steps toward a Businesslike Atmosphere 59

Beginning a New School Year 59

Students’ Perceived Notions 59

Taking Advantage of Initial Uncertainty 59

Planning for a Favorable Beginning 60

Learning Activities Conducive to a Favorable Beginning 62

Displaying Withitness 71

Modeling Preparation and Organization 72

The Importance of the Third and Fourth Stages of Teaching Cycles 72

The Effects of Preparation on Classroom Climate and Efficiency 73

Orchestrating Smooth, Efficient Transitions 74

Smoothness of Transitions and Momentum 74

Minimizing Transition Time 79

Dispensing with Administrative Duties 79

Inefficient Use of Class Time 79

Efficient Use of Class Time 80

Saving Time When Distributing Materials and Giving Directions 81

Efficient Beginnings to Learning Activities 81

Freedom from Having to Speak to the Whole Class 82

Distributing Materials Ahead of Time 83

Cues for Efficient Routines 83

Employing Technology to Enhance Classroom Efficiency 85

Saving Time with Intraclass Grouping 86

Accommodating Students Who Complete Work at Different Times 87

Creating a Comfortable, Nonthreatening, and Safe Learning Community 87

A Frightening Place 87

Risking Self-Respect 88

Disassociating Self-Respect from Achievement 90

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 3 90

Transitional Activity from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4 92

CHAPTER 4 Establishing Cooperative Relationships 93

Chapter 4’s Goal and Objectives 93

Using Descriptive Instead of Judgmental Language 94

Focused Descriptions, Not Characterizations or Labels 94

Differences between Descriptive and Judgmental Language 95

The Consequences of Judgmental Language 96

The Detrimental Effects of Characterizations 96

The Fallacy of Labels 97

Competition or Cooperation 98

Teaching Students to Listen to You 98

The Richness of Descriptive Language 98

The Judicious Use of Words 99

Thinking Before Talking 100

More and More Useless Words 101

Speaking Only to Intended Listeners 102

Body Language and Proximity 102

Voice Tone 105

Speaking Only to the Attentive 106

Listening to Students 107

Using Supportive Replies 108

Accepting Feelings 108

Relieving Frustration 108

Defusing Conflict 109

Avoiding Unintended Messages 110

The Risk of Misinterpretation 110

Modeling a Businesslike Attitude 111

Avoiding Disruptive Teacher Behavior 111

Being Responsible for One’s Own Conduct 112

Communicating Assertively 115

The Assertive Response Style 115

Controlling Your Professional Life 117

Teaching Students to Communicate Assertively 121

Communicating Evaluations 121

Two Reasons for Communicating Evaluations 121

Emphasizing Formative Evaluations 126

Grades as a Form of Communication 130

Fostering Parents’ Cooperation 130

Focusing on Formative Evaluations 130

Conferences 131

Written Communications 132

Professional Confidence and Students’ Rights 132

Unprofessional Behavior 132

Privileged Information 134

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 4 135

Transitional Activity from Chapter 4 to Chapter 5 139

CHAPTER 5 Standards for Conduct, Routine Procedures, and Safe-School Policies 140

Chapter 5’s Goal and Objectives 140

Standards for Classroom Conduct 140

Purposefully Stated Standards 140

The Number of Standards for Classroom Conduct 142

Procedures for Smoothly Operating Classrooms 142

Necessary Standards for Conduct 144

Four Purposes 144

Justification of a Standard 144

Politeness and Courtesy 145

The Consequences of Unnecessary Standards 146

When to Determine Standards and Routine Procedures 146

Who Should Determine Standards? 147

Teaching Standards and Procedures to Students 148

Schoolwide Discipline Policies 151

Developing Safe-School Programs 152

The Roots of School Violence 152

Focus on Prevention Not Retribution 154

Violence-Prevention Strategies 155

Conflict Management and Resolution in Curricula 155

Reducing Gang-Related Activities in School 162

Gang Activities 162

Working with Gang-Affiliated Students and Eliminating Gang Activities in School 165

Gentle, Caring School Communities 167

Essentials of an Effective Safe-School System 171

Eleven Elements 171

Consensus within the Community 171

Research and Periodic Safety Audits 172

School-Safety Committee 172

Team Approach 173

Training for All School Personnel 173

Coordination with Schoolwide Discipline Policies 173

Provisions for Building Positive Relationships 174

Provisions for Conflict Resolution 174

Communication Systems 174

Backup and Crisis-Support Resources and Procedures 175

Traffic Control and Intruder Prevention 175

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 5 177

Transitional Activity from Chapter 5 to Chapter 6 179

CHAPTER 6 Working with Individual Differences among Students 180

Chapter 6’s Goal and Objectives 180

The Key: Relating to Students as Individuals 181

Including Students with Characteristics Typically Disdained in So-Called Mainstream Society 185

The Consequences of Students Feeling Marginalized 185

Strategies for Inclusion in Your Classroom 186

Special Populations 189

Legal Concerns Relative to Inclusion and Accommodation 191

Classroom Management Implications of IDEA and Other Federal Statutes 191

Zero-Reject and IEP Implications for Classroom Management 192

An Example of a Teacher’s Accommodations for Health and Hearing Impairments 192

An Example of a Teacher’s Accommodations for a Learning Disability 204

An Example of a Teacher’s Accommodations for an Emotional Disturbance 208

Accommodating and Including Students for Whom English Is Not a First Language 217

Benefitting from Cultural Diversity 221

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 6 227

Transitional Activity from Chapter 6 to Chapter 7 228


CHAPTER 7 Conducting and Monitoring Engaging Learning Activities 231

Chapter 7’s Goal and Objectives 231

Problem-Based Learning 231

Non-Problem-Based Approach 231

Problem-Based Approach 232

Intrinsic Motivation Via the Problem-Based Approach 234

Delivering Directions for Learning Activities 236

Explicitness, Specificity, and Directness 236

Nine Points about Directions 238

Monitoring Student Engagement 240

Variety of Learning Activities 248

Ideas for Lecture Sessions 248

Student Engagement during Lectures 248

Fifteen Points about Lectures 251

Ideas for Cooperative Learning Sessions 254

Students Learning from One Another 254

Guidance and Structure for Maintaining Engagement 254

Ten Points about Cooperative Learning Sessions 256

Ideas for Discussion Sessions 258

Student Engagement during Discussions 258

Seven Points about Discussion Sessions 259

Ideas for Questioning Sessions 260

Student Engagement during Questioning Sessions 260

Six Points about Questioning Sessions 264

Ideas for Independent Work Sessions 265

Student Engagement during Independent Work Sessions 265

Four Points about Independent Work Sessions 266

Ideas for Homework Assignments 267

Student Engagement in Homework Assignments 267

Eight Points about Homework Assignments 269

Classroom Designs That Enhance Student Engagement 271

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 7 281

Transitional Activity from Chapter 7 to Chapter 8 282


CHAPTER 8 Approaching Off-Task Behaviors Systematically 285

Chapter 8’s Goal and Objectives 285

Deal with Off-Task Behaviors via the Teaching Cycles Model 285

A Mechanism for Focusing 285

More Elaborate Applications 287

Staying Calm and Organizing Thoughts 291

Deal with Misbehaviors Before They ‘‘Get to You’’ 292

Either Respond Decisively to an Off-Task Behavior or Do Not Overtly React to It at All 292

Distinguish between Teaching Students to Be On-Task and Building Character 294

A Teacher’s Responsibilities and Capabilities 294

Focusing on the Task 295

Distinguish between Isolated Off-Task Behaviors and Off-Task Behavior Patterns 296

Control the Time and Place for Dealing with Off-Task Behaviors 296

A Cautionary Note Regarding Private Meetings with Students 298

Provide Students with Dignified Options for Terminating Off-Task Behaviors 299

Avoid Playing Detective 300

Use Alternative Lesson Plans 301

Use the Help of Colleagues 302

Use the Help of Parents and Instructional Supervisors 302

The Myth of the ‘‘Good Teacher’’ 302 Assertiveness 303

Do Not Use Corporal Punishment 304

Corporal Punishment 304

Arguments for and against Corporal Punishment 306

Corporal Punishment: A Poor Choice 309

Know Your Rights and Limitations 309

Maintain Your Options 310

Know Yourself and Your Students 310

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 8 310

Transitional Activity from Chapter 8 to Chapter 9 313

CHAPTER 9 Modifying Off-Task Behavior Patterns 314

Chapter 9’s Goal and Objectives 314

Systematic Techniques for Changing Habits 314

The Formations and Elimination of Behavior Patterns 314

The Need for Systematic Observation 314

Applying the Principle of Extinction 316

The Principle 316

Unintentional Extinction 316

Intentional Extinction 317

Alternative Behavior Patterns 318

Applying the Principle of Shaping 319

Maintaining Desirable Behavior Changes 320

Reinforcement Schedules 320

Fixed Schedules 320

Intermittent Schedules 321

Planned Schedules of Reinforcement 322

Cuing 323

Generalization and Discrimination 324

The Idea 324

The Principle of Generalization 324

The Principle of Discrimination 324

Distinguishing between Generalizing and Discriminating 325

Applying the Principle of Modeling 326

Applying the Principle of Satiation 327

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 9 328

Transitional Activity from Chapter 9 to Chapter 10 329

CHAPTER 10 Dealing with Nondisruptive Off-Task Behaviors 330

Chapter 10’s Goal and Objectives 330

Nondisruptive Off-Task Behaviors 330

Mind Wandering and Daydreaming 331

Detection and Response 331

Strategies 332

Refusing to Participate in Class Activities 333

Failing to Complete Homework Assignments 338

Meaningful Homework 338

Strategies 339

Failing to Bring Needed Materials to Class 340

Being Under the Influence of Debilitating Drugs 341

Teachers’ Attitudes 341

Strategies 342

Being Absent or Tardy 346

Schoolwide Policies for Extrinsically Motivating Student Attendance 346

Teachers’ Policies for Extrinsically Motivating Student Attendance 347

Irrationality of Some Popular Attendance Policies 347

Strategies 348

Cheating on Tests 349

Nine Incidents 349

Prevalence and Causes of Cheating 351

Strategies 352

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 10 355

Transitional Activity from Chapter 10 to Chapter 11 355

CHAPTER 11 Dealing with Disruptive Behaviors 357

Chapter 11’s Goal and Objectives 357

Disruptive Behaviors 357

Dealing with Nonviolent Disruptions 357

Disruptive Talking 357

Interrupting 359

Clowning 361

Being Discourteous 363

Failing to Clean Up 365

Dealing with Violent Disruptions 366

Safe-School Programs in Place 366

Bullying 366

Fighting 368

Attacks on Teachers 374

Causes 374

Strategies 376

Vandalizing 377

Synthesis Activities for Chapter 11 378

Transitional Activity from Chapter 11 to Chapter 12 378


CHAPTER 12 Continuing to Build your Classroom Management Talents 381

Chapter 12’s Goal 381

Building on Experiences 381

Instructional Supervision 382

Assessing Your Own Teaching 384

Action Research 385

Your Uniqueness 385

References 387

Index 395


  • Updated content is incorporated throughout that reflects advances in instructional technology and recently published research findings.
  • Attention to legal implications of teachers’ choices of classroom management practices - especially teachers’ responses to students’ off-task behaviors - is more emphasized throughout the text than it was in the prior edition.
  • Nineteen cases observed since the publication of the sixth edition have been incorporated and some of the previous cases were deleted.
  • To accommodate the new content without appreciably increasing the book's length and to improve the pedagogy, the writing throughout has been edited so that the presentations are crisper and connections among various topics are more explicitly explained.
  • Chapters begin with a goal defined by a set of objectives.
  • Embedded throughout chapters are prompts for you to engage in activities designed to enhance your talent for developing classroom management strategies.
  • Included at the end of each of the first 11 chapters are synthesis activities and a transitional activity.
  • This book not only explains such strategies but also brings them to life in 328 cases - 327 of which are drawn from a wide range of actual elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high school teaching experiences as well as a few parent-child interactions. The one fabricated case is Case 7.1.