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Climatic Changes

Climatic Changes

M. I. Budyko

ISBN: 978-1-118-66525-1

Mar 2013

261 pages

Select type: O-Book


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series.

At the beginning of the 1960s the opinion was voiced that noticeable, world-wide changes could take place in the climate in the very near future, due to increased industrialization and energy production. Since such changes would have a significant bearing on all fields of human endeavor, the task of utilizing this forecast in economic planning became urgent. Shortly afterwards, research on anthropogenic climatic variations commenced in several countries and the results were regularly discussed at national and international scientific meetings. These studies confirmed the pressing need for developing methods to predict future climatic variations caused by man's economic activity.

Foreword v

Chapter 1. Introduction 1

1.1. The Purpose of This Book 1

1.2. Sources of Information on the Climate 2

1.3. Climates of Different Epochs 8

1.4. Factors of Climatic Changes 17

Chapter 2. The Genesis of Climate 31

2.1. The Energy Balance of the Earth 31

2.2. Semiempirical Theory of the Climate 44

Chapter 3. Contemporary Climatic Changes 72

3.1. The Warming During the First Half of the Twentieth Century 72

3.2. Causes of Climate Warming 80

Chapter 4. Climates of the Past 98

4.1. The Quaternary Period 98

4.2. Pre-Quaternary Variations 111

Chapter 5. Climate and the Evolution of Living Organisms 132

5.1. Ecological Systems 132

5.2. Climatic Factors in Evolution 143

5.3. Climatic Factors in Human Evolution 161

Chapter 6. Man's Influence on Climate 171

6.1. Changes in Local Climate 171

6.2. Changes in Global Climate 184

Chapter 7. The Climate of the Future 197

7.1. The Outlook for Climatic Changes 197

7.2. The Possible Ecological Crisis 219

7.3. Climate Modification 236

Conclusion 245

Summary 246

Bibliography 248