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Clinical Anatomy: Applied Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors, 13th Edition

Clinical Anatomy: Applied Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors, 13th Edition

Harold Ellis, Vishy Mahadevan

ISBN: 978-1-118-37375-0

Aug 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

504 pages




Written by one of the great teachers of anatomy, the thirteenth edition of Clinical Anatomy continues to provide thousands of medical students, postgraduate trainees and junior doctors across the world with essential anatomical information within a clinical setting. It is particularly appropriate for those preparing for the Intercollegiate Membership Examination of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons (I-MRCS).

Professor Harold Ellis is again joined by Professor Vishy Mahadevan to provide detailed, easy-to-follow structured text suitable for anatomy students and trainees of all levels.

Fully revised and updated with many new illustrations, this new edition features for the first time, several anatomical drawings overlaid on a living anatomy model to provide detailed topographical orientation and accurate surface representation.

The companion website at contains digital flashcards of all the illustrations and photographs contained in the book - ideal for revision and teaching purposes.

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Preface to the Thirteenth Edition, xiii

Preface to the First Edition, xv

Acknowledgements to the Thirteenth Edition, xvii

Acknowledgements to the First Edition, xix

About the Companion Website, xxi

Part 1: The Thorax

Introduction, 3

Surface anatomy and surface markings, 3

The trachea, 4

The pleura, 4

The lungs, 6

The heart, 6

The thoracic cage, 7

The thoracic vertebrae, 7

The ribs, 8

The costal cartilages, 11

The sternum, 11

The intercostal spaces, 12

The diaphragm, 14

The pleurae, 19

The lower respiratory tract, 20

The trachea, 20

The bronchi, 25

The lungs, 25

The mediastinum, 30

The pericardium, 30

The heart, 31

The superior mediastinum, 46

The thymus, 46

The oesophagus, 47

The thoracic duct, 50

The thoracic sympathetic trunk, 52

On the examination of a chest radiograph, 55

Radiographic appearance of the heart, 56

Part 2: The Abdomen and Pelvis

Surface anatomy and surface markings, 61

Vertebral levels, 61

Surface markings of individual viscera, 63

The fasciae and muscles of the abdominal wall, 64

Fasciae of the abdominal wall, 64

The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, 65

The anatomy of abdominal incisions, 67

The inguinal canal, 70

Peritoneal cavity, 72

Intraperitoneal fossae, 76

The subphrenic spaces, 76

The gastrointestinal tract, 77

The stomach, 77

The duodenum, 82

Small intestine, 85

Large intestine, 86

The appendix, 87

The rectum, 89

Arterial supply of the intestine, 94

The portal system of veins, 95

Lymph drainage of the intestine, 96

The structure of the alimentary canal, 97

The development of the intestine and its congenital abnormalities, 98

The gastrointestinal adnexae: liver, gall bladder and its ducts, pancreas and spleen, 101

The liver, 101

The biliary system, 106

The gall bladder, 107

The pancreas, 110

The spleen, 112

The urinary tract, 114

The kidneys, 114

The ureter, 118

The embryology and congenital abnormalities of the kidney and ureter, 119

The bladder, 121

The urethra, 124

The male genital organs, 125

The prostate, 125

The scrotum, 128

Testis and epididymis, 129

Vas deferens (ductus deferens), 133

The seminal vesicles, 134

The bony and ligamentous pelvis, 134

The os innominatum, 134

The sacrum, 135

The coccyx, 136

The functions of the pelvis, 136

Joints and ligamentous connections of the pelvis, 137

Differences between the male and female pelvis, 137

Obstetrical pelvic measurements, 138

Variations of the pelvic shape, 139

Sacral (caudal) anaesthesia, 142

The muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum, 143

The anterior (urogenital) perineum, 144

The posterior (anal) perineum, 146

The female genital organs, 147

The vulva, 147

The vagina, 148

The uterus, 150

The Fallopian tubes, 154

The ovary, 156

The endopelvic fascia and the pelvic ligaments, 157

Vaginal examination, 158

Embryology of the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina, 159

The posterior abdominal wall, 161

The suprarenal glands, 162

Abdominal aorta, 163

Inferior vena cava, 164

Lumbar sympathetic chain, 166

Computed axial tomography, 167

Part 3: The Upper Limb

Surface anatomy and surface markings of the upper limb, 171

Bones and joints, 171

Muscles and tendons, 172

Vessels, 172

Nerves, 176

The bones and joints of the upper limb, 177

The scapula, 177

The clavicle, 177

The humerus, 179

The radius and ulna, 180

The bones of the hand, 183

The shoulder joint, 185

The elbow joint, 190

The wrist joint, 193

The joints of the hand, 194

Three important zones of the upper limb: the axilla, the cubital fossa and the carpal tunnel, 197

The axilla, 197

The cubital fossa, 197

The carpal tunnel, 199

The arteries of the upper limb, 199

The axillary artery, 199

The brachial artery, 200

The radial artery, 200

The ulnar artery, 201

The brachial plexus, 201

The segmental cutaneous supply of the upper limb, 203

The course and distribution of the principal nerves of the upper limb, 205

The axillary nerve, 205

The radial nerve, 205

The musculocutaneous nerve, 206

The ulnar nerve, 207

The median nerve, 208

Compartments of the upper limb, 209

Compartments in the segments of the upper limb, 209

Compartment syndrome, 210

The female breast, 210

Structure, 210

Blood supply, 211

Lymphatic drainage, 211

Development, 213

The anatomy of upper limb deformities, 214

The spaces of the hand, 218

The superficial pulp space of the fingers, 218

The ulnar and radial bursae and the synovial tendon sheaths of the fingers, 219

Part 4: The Lower Limb

The surface anatomy and surface markings of the lower limb, 225

Bones and joints, 225

Bursae of the lower limb, 226

Mensuration in the lower limb, 226

Muscles and tendons, 229

Vessels, 230

Nerves, 233

The bones and joints of the lower limb, 235

The os innominatum, 235

The femur, 235

The patella, 240

The tibia, 242

The fibula, 244

A note on growing ends and nutrient foramina in the long bones, 244

The bones of the foot, 245

The hip joint, 245

The knee joint, 250

The tibiofibular joints, 253

The ankle joint, 253

The joints of the foot, 256

The arches of the foot, 256

The anatomy of walking, 258

Three important zones of the lower limb: the femoral triangle, adductor canal and popliteal fossa, 259

The femoral triangle, 259

The adductor canal (of Hunter) or subsartorial canal, 263

The popliteal fossa, 264

The arteries of the lower limb, 266

Femoral artery, 266

Popliteal artery, 267

Posterior tibial artery, 268

Anterior tibial artery, 269

The veins of the lower limb, 269

The course and distribution of the principal nerves of the lower limb, 272

The lumbar plexus, 272

The sacral plexus, 273

The sciatic nerve, 276

The tibial nerve, 277

The common peroneal (fi bular) nerve, 278

Segmental cutaneous supply of the lower limb, 279

Compartments of the lower limb, 279

Compartments in the segments of the lower limb, 281

Compartment syndrome, 282

Part 5: The Head and Neck

The surface anatomy of the neck, 285

Introduction, 285

The fascial compartments of the neck, 287

Tissue planes and fascial layers in the anterior part of neck, 287

The thyroid gland, 290

The parathyroid glands, 294

The palate, 296

The development of the face, lips and palate with special reference to their congenital deformities, 297

The tongue and floor of the mouth, 299

The tongue, 299

The floor of the mouth, 303

The pharynx, 304

The nasopharynx, 304

The oropharynx, 306

The palatine tonsils, 306

The laryngopharynx, 308

The mechanism of deglutition, 310

The larynx, 312

The salivary glands, 318

The parotid gland, 318

The submandibular gland, 320

The sublingual gland, 321

The major arteries of the head and neck, 322

The common carotid arteries, 322

The external carotid artery, 322

The internal carotid artery, 324

The subclavian arteries, 327

The veins of the head and neck, 329

The cerebral venous system, 329

The venous sinuses of the dura, 329

The internal jugular vein, 332

The subclavian vein, 333

The lymph nodes of the neck, 335

The cervical sympathetic trunk, 337

The branchial system and its derivatives, 339

Branchial cyst and fistula, 339

The surface anatomy and surface markings of the head, 341

The scalp, 342

The skull, 343

Floor of the cranial cavity, 346

Development, 347

The paranasal sinuses (accessory nasal sinuses), 349

The frontal sinuses, 350

The maxillary sinus (antrum of Highmore), 350

The ethmoid sinuses, 352

The sphenoidal sinuses, 353

The mandible, 353

The temporomandibular joint, 354

The teeth, 355

The vertebral column, 356

The cervical vertebrae, 357

The thoracic vertebrae, 359

The lumbar vertebrae, 359

The sacrum, 360

The coccyx, 360

The intervertebral joints, 360

Part 6: The Nervous System

Introduction, 365

The brain, 365

The brainstem, 365

The cerebellum, 368

The diencephalon, 370

The pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri), 372

The cerebral hemispheres, 374

The membranes of the brain and spinal cord (the meninges), 385

The ventricular system and the cerebrospinal fl uid circulation, 386

The spinal cord, 390

Age differences, 393

The membranes of the cord (the meninges), 394

The cranial nerves, 397

The olfactory nerve (I), 398

The optic nerve (II) and the visual pathway, 398

The oculomotor nerve (III), 401

The trochlear nerve (IV), 403

The trigeminal nerves (V), 403

The abducent nerve (VI), 409

The facial nerve (VII), 409

The auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve (VIII), 412

The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), 412

The vagus nerve (X), 413

The accessory nerve (XI), 415

The hypoglossal nerve (XII), 416

The special senses, 417

The nose, 417

The ear, 419

The eye and associated structures, 423

The autonomic nervous system, 428

The sympathetic system, 431

The sympathetic trunk, 432

The parasympathetic system, 436

Glossary of eponyms, 439

Index, 445