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Clinical Psychometrics, 2nd Edition

Clinical Psychometrics, 2nd Edition

Per Bech

ISBN: 978-1-118-51180-0 September 2012 Wiley-Blackwell 216 Pages


Clinical Psychometrics is an introduction to the long-term attempt to measure the psychiatric dimension of dementia, schizophrenia, mania, depression, anxiety, neuroticism, extraversion/introversion and health-related quality of life.

The two psychometric procedures, classical factor analysis and modern item-response models, are presented for readers without any requirement for particular mathematical or statistical knowledge. The book is unique in this attempt and provides helpful background information for the dimensional approach that is being used in the forthcoming updates to the diagnostic classification systems, ICD-11 and DSM-5.

The book is written for everyone who is interested in the origins and development of modern psychiatry, and who wants to be familiar with its practical possibilities; how it is possible to compare different individuals with each other, how one may determine the boundary between what is normal and what is disease, or how one may assess the clinical effect of the various forms of treatment, available to present day psychiatry.

About the author, ix

Preface, x

Introduction, 1

1. Classical psychometrics, 3

Emil Kraepelin: Symptom check list and pharmacopsychology, 6

Charles Spearman: Factor analysis and intelligence tests, 10

Harold Hotelling: Principal Component Analysis, 13

Hans Eysenck: Factor analysis and personality questionnaires, 15

Max Hamilton: Factor analysis and rating scales, 20

Pierre Pichot: Symptom rating scales and clinical validity, 23

2. Modern psychiatry: DSM-IV/ICD-10, 27

Focusing on reliability, 27

Focusing on validity, 28

Quantitative, dimensional diagnosis, 29

3. Modern dimensional psychometrics, 32

Ronald A. Fisher: From Galton’s pioneer work to the sufficient statistic, 32

Georg Rasch: From Guttman’s pioneer work to item response theory analysis (IRT), 34

Sidney Siegel: Non-parametric statistics, 38

Robert J. Mokken: Non-parametric analysis for item response theory (IRT), 39

4. Modern psychometrics: Item categories and sufficient statistics, 43

Rensis Likert: Scale step measurements, 43

John Overall: Brief, sufficient rating scales, 45

Clinical versus psychometric validity, 48

Item-response theory versus factor analysis, 49

Jacob Cohen: Effect size, 50

5. The clinical consequence of IRT analyses: The pharmacopsychometric triangle, 53

Effect size and clinical significance, 53

The pharmacopsychometric triangle, 56

Antidementia medication, 59

Antipsychotic medication, 60

Antimanic medication, 65

Antidepressive medication, 66

Antianxiety medication, 69

Mood stabilising medications, 72

Combination of antidepressants, 73

6. The clinical consequence of IRT analyses: Health-related quality of life, 74

The WHO-5 Questionnaire, 78

7. The clinical consequences of IRT analyses: The concept of stress, 82

Post-traumatic stress disorder, 82

The work-related stress condition, 84

Integration of Selye's medical stress model, 85

8. Questionnaires as 'blood tests', 89

Population studies in depression and anxiety, 89

The predictive validity of WHO-5, 92

Screening scales, 92

9. Summary and perspectives, 95

10. Epilogue: Who's carrying Einstein's baton?, 103

Glossary, 109

Appendices, 114

References, 185

Index, 196