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Coastal-Offshore Ecosystem

Coastal-Offshore Ecosystem

Bengt-Owe Jansson (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66963-1

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

367 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies Series, Volume 22.

Jansson, B.-O. (ed.). Coastal-offshore ecosystem interaction. Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies. Springer Verlag 22:

Interactions between coastal and offshore ecosystems are considered, focusing on four aspects. 1. Water exchange, crucial for most couplings is classified for two types of system: shallow coastal areas and narrow, deep shelf areas. 2. Mass balance studies of tidal flats, salt marshes, mangroves, fjord systems and coral reefs give a strong indication of recirculation of nutrients and suggest that imported organic material mostly remains in the nearshore areas. 3. Active transport is demonstrated for fish and crustacean species occupying coastal nurseries. Both crab and shrimp larvae are vertical migrators which by reacting to fine-tuned hydrodynamics are retained, in favourable adult habitats. 4. Numerical modelling as a means of synthesizing relevant physical and biological processes is analyzed for several existing ecosystem models and recommendations for suitable techniques are made.

Evaluation of present evidence shows that: a) on a global scale and of the scale of years to decades, outwelling is quantitatively insignificant in the biogeochemistry or productivity of the sea b) productivity of many coastal systems are determined in the short term more by recycling than by inputs, though the relationship between the two remains to be determined c) "information flows" in the form of oceanic populations using the coastal areas as nursery grounds are important.

Abstract  vi

Background and Acknowledgements  vii

Guide to the Contents
B.O. Jansson  xi

Contributors xiv

I HATER EXCHANGE
Inshore/offshore water exchange in shallow coastal systems.
J. Dronkers  3

Coastal/offshore water exchange in narrow, deep shelf areas.
T.A. McClimans  40

Satellite remote sensing for estimating coastal/offshore transports.
U. Horstmann  50

II MASS BALANCE STUDIES
The use of stable isotope ratios for tracing the nearshore-offshore exchange of organic matter.
J.N. Gearing  69

Tidal flat areas.
H. Postma  102

Patterns of organic carbon exchange between coastal ecosystems. - The mass balance approach in salt marsh ecosystems.
C.S. Hopkinson  122

Coupling of mangroves to the productivity of estuarine and coastal waters.
R.R. Twilley  155

Production and transport of organic matter in mangrove-dominated estuaries.
P.L. Gomez  181

Energy flow through fjord systems.
T.H. Pearson  188

Mass balance in coral reef-dominated areas.
S.V. Smith  209

Riverine C, N, Si and P transport to the coastal ocean: an overview.
D.H. Peterson, S.W. Hager, L.E. Schemel  227

III ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Fish migrations between coastal and offshore areas.
J. J. Zijlstra  257

Larval transport in coastal crustacea: three case histories.
P.C. Rothlisberg  273

Transport of crab larvae between estuaries and the continental shelf.
C. E. Epifanio  291

IV NUMERICAL MODELLING
Coupling of hydrodynamic and ecosystems modelling applied to tidal estuaries.
R. J. Uncles  309

V COASTAL-OFFSHORE INTERACTIONS
An evaluation of presented evidence
B.-O. Jansson, A.D. Mclntyre, S.W. Nixon, M.M. Pamatmat, B. Zeitzschel, J.J. Zijlstra 357

SUBJECT INDEX  364