Skip to main content

Coastal Upwelling

Francis A. Richards (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66532-9 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 529 Pages



Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences, Volume 1.

This volume is one outcome of the IDOE International Symposium on Coastal Upwelling, but it is not a true symposium proceedings. Some of the papers in the book were not presented at the meeting, some papers and posters that were presented at the symposium are not in the book, and none of the discussions following oral presentations is included. All papers submitted to the editor were reviewed by anonymous referees, who recommended for or against inclusion and suggested changes. The editor wishes to thank the more than 100 scientists who helped improve the book by their expert reviews of the individual papers.

Editor's Preface ix

Organizers' Remarks xi

Coastal Upwelling Overview

An Upwelling Mythology
Warren S. Wooster  1

The Importance of Coastal Upwelling Research to Peru 4 R.R.P. Chase NASA's Potential Remote Sensing Capabilities 
Felipe Ancieta  6

The Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis Program: Social Implications  
Felipe Ancieta  9

The Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis Program: Epilogue
Feenan D. Jennings  13

The Physical Process of Upwelling

Forcing Functions

Estimates of Large-Scale Atmospheric Pressure Variations in the Upwelling Area off Northwest Africa Feenan D. Jennings  17

Sea-Surface Temperatures and Winds During JOINT II: Part I. Mean Conditions
G.L. Moody, David W. Stuart, A J. Watson, and M.M. Nanney  21

Sea-Surface Temperatures and Winds During JOINT II: Part II. Temporal Fluctuations
David W. Stuart  32

A Comparison of Surface Winds and Winds Measured at 152 m During JOINT I 1974 and JOINT II 1977 David W. Stuart, Robert J. Goodwin, and William P. Duval  39

Southern California Summer Coastal Upwelling
Clive E. Dorman and David P. Palmer  44

Upwelling: Effects on Air Temperatures and Solar Irradiance
Sargun A. Font  57

Cold Water Intrusions and Upwelling Near Cape Canaveral, Florida
Thomas D. Leming and Christopher N.K. Mooers  63

Mesoscale Upwelling Variations off the West African Coast
Eberhard Hagen  72

The Propagation of Tidal and Inertial Waves in the Upwelling Region off Peru
W.R. Johnson  79

A Satellite Sequence on Upwelling Along the California Coast
Laurence C. Breaker and Ronald P. Gilliland  87

Equatorial Upwelling in the Eastern Atlantic: Problems and Paradoxes
B. Voituriez  95

Descriptions and Comparisons of Specific Upwelling Systems

A Comparison of the Structure and Variability of the Flow Field in Three Coastal Upwelling Regions: Oregon, Northwest Africa, and Peru
Robert L. Smith  107

Local Upwelling Associated With Vortex Motion off Oshima Island, Japan
Masayuki Takahashi, Yoshibumi Yasuoka, Masataka Watanabe, Fadakuni Miyazaki, and Shun-ei Ichimura  119

Short-Term Variations Observed in the Circulation, Heat Content, and Surface Mixed Layer of an Upwelling Plume off Cabo Nazca, Peru
Merritt R. Stevenson, David W. Stuart, and George W. Heburn  125

The Northern Peruvian Upwelling System During the ESACAN Experiment
Eberhard Fahrbach, Christoph Brockmann, Nelson Lostaunau, and Wilfredo Urquizo  134

Hydrological and Meteorological Aspects of Upwelling in the Southern Benguela Current
L.V. Shannon, G. Nelson, and M.R. Jury  146

Upwelling in the Gulf of Lions
Claude Millot and Lucien Wald  160

Interaction Between the Canary Current and the Bottom Topography
Antonio Cruzado and Jordi Salat  167

Upwelling off the Galacian Coast, Northwest Spain
F. Fraga  176


Weakly Stratified Shelf Currents
John A. Johnson  183

Internal Cross-Shelf Flow Reversals During Coastal Upwelling
Donald R. Johnson and Christopher N.K. Mooers  188

A Two-Dimensional Diabatic Isopycnal Model of a Coastal Upwelling Front
E-Chien Foo, Claes Rooth, and Rainer Bleck  193

A Coastal Upwelling Circulation Model With Eddy Viscosity Depending on Richardson Number
Masahiro Endoh, Christopher N.K. Mooers, and Walter R. Johnson  203

Some Chemical Consequences of Upwelling

Temporal Nutrient Variability in Three Different Upwelling Regions
L.A. Codispoti  209

The Effects of Mixing and Regeneration on the Nutrient Content of Upwelling Waters off Peru
G. E. Friederich and L.A. Codispoti  221

Satellite Observations of a Cyclonic Upwelling System and Giant Plume in the California Current
E. D. Traganza, J. C. Conrad, and L. C. Breaker  228

Consumption and Regeneration of Silicic Acid in Three Coastal Upwelling Systems
D. M. Nelson, J.J. Goering, and D. W. Boisseau  242

Nitrogen Recycling and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems
Terry E. Whitledge  257

Water Exchange and the Balance of Phosphate in the Gulf of Cariaco, Venezuela
Taizo Okuda  274

A Comparison of Distributions of Suspended Matter in the Peru and Northwest African Upwelling Areas Gunnar Kullenberg  282

A Note on Short-Term Production and Sedimentation in the Upwelling Region off Peru
Klaus von Brocket  291

Natural and Man-Made Radiocarbon As a Tracer for Coastal Upwelling Processes
Stephen W. Robinson  298

Upwelling, Primary Production, and Phytoplankton

Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru
W. G. Harrison, T. Piatt, R. Calienes, and N. Ochoa 303

Upwelling off Chimbote
O. Guillen and R. Calienes  312

Composition and Distribution of Phytoplankton in the Upwelling System of the Galapagos Islands
Roberto Jimenez  327

Short-Time Variability of Phytoplankton Populations in Upwelling Regions—The Example of Northwest Africa
Dolors Blasco, Marta Estrada, and Burton H. Jones  339

Seasonal Phytoplankton Distribution Along the Peruvian Coast
B. Rojas de Mendiola  348

The Role of Circulation and Stability in Controlling the Relative Abundance of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms Over the Peru Shelf
S. A. Huntsman, K.H. Brink, R. T. Barber, and D. Blasco  357

The Role of Circulation, Sinking, and Vertical Migration in Physical Sorting of Phytoplankton in the Upwelling Center at 15°S
Richard T. Barber and Walker O. Smith, Jr.  366

Diatoms in Surface Sediments: A Reflection of Coastal Upwelling
Gretchen Schuette and Hans Schrader  372

Upwelling and Zooplankton

Advection and Upwelling in the California Current
Patricio A. Bernal and John A. McGowan  381

The Effect of Advection on Variations in Zooplankton at a Single Location Near Cabo Nazca, Peru
S. L. Smith, K. H. Brink, H. Santander, T. J. Cozvles, and A. Huyer  400

The Zooplankton in an Upwelling Area off Peru
Haydee Santander Bueno  411

Short-Term Variation in the Vertical Distribution of Small Copepods off the Coast of Northern Peru
S. L. Smith, C. M. Boyd, and P. V. Z. Lane  417

A Dense Patch oiAcartia levequei (Copepoda, Calanoida) in Upwelled Equatorial Undercurrent Water Around the Galapagos Islands
Fernando Arcos  427

On the Food of Calanoid Copepods From the Northwest African Upwelling Region
S. B. Schnack and M. Elbrachter  433

Upwelling and Macrofauna

The Nekton

Responses of Macrofauna to Short-Term Dynamics of a Gulf Stream Front on the Continental Shelf
John J. Magnuson, Cynthia L. Harrington, Donald J. Stewart, and Gary N. Herbst  441

The Effect of El Nino Upon the Peruvian Anchoveta Stock
D. H. Cushing  449

Seasonal Food Production and Consumption by Nekton in the Northwest African Upwelling System
R. J. Trumble, O. A. Mathisen, and D. W. Stuart  458

The Benthos

The Benthic Processes of Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems
Gilbert T. Rowe  464

Upwelling and Biological Systems

Physical and Biological Structure and Variability in an Upwelling Center off Peru Near 15°C During March, 1977
K. H. Brink, B. H. Jones, J.C. Van Leer, C.N.K. Mooers, D. W. Stuart, M. R. Stevenson, R. C. Dugdale, and G. W. Heburn  473

The Formation of Plankton Patches in the Southern Benguela Current
L. Hutchings  496

Wind-Induced Water Movements in a Benguela Kelp Bed
J.G. Field, C.L. Griffiths, E.A.S. Linley, P. Zoutendyk, and R.A. Carter  507

Persistent Upwelling and Mesoscale Zones of High Productivity off the West Coast of Vancouver Island, Canada
K.L. Denman, D.L. Mackas, H.J. Freeland, M.J. Austin, and S.H. Hill  514

On Upwelling, Eutrophic Lakes, the Primitive Biosphere, and Biological Membranes
Ramon Margalef and Marta Estrada  522