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College Physics

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College Physics

Michael Tammaro

ISBN: 978-1-119-62485-1 August 2019

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Description

Tammaro’s College Physics, First Edition will convert more students from passive to active learners through a unique presentation of material built from the ground up in a digital environment. When students become “active” learners, they study “smarter” by spending time on content that will help them improve their understanding of key concepts (NOT skipping straight to the problems to find out what they don’t know). College Physics, First Edition utilizes an assignable, module structure with frequent assessment check points at various difficulty levels to ensure maximum points of student engagement and retention.

0 Mathematical Preliminaries 1

0.1 Mathematics 2

0.2 Algebra 3

0.3 Using Your Calculator 13

0.4 Geometry and Trigonometry 17

0.5 Graphs 21

1 Introduction to Physics 27

1.1 Physics and Physical Laws 28

1.2 Units, Dimensions, and Conversions 30

1.3 Scientific Notation and Significant Figures 35

1.4 Problem Solving in Physics 39

2 Kinematics in One Dimension 42

2.1 Position and Displacement: Vectors in One Dimension 43

2.2 Average Speed and Velocity 46

2.3 Instantaneous Velocity 49

2.4 Acceleration 50

2.5 Motion in One Dimension with Constant Acceleration 52

2.6 Graphs and Their Interpretation 58

2.7 Free Fall: The Acceleration of Gravity 60

3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 69

3.1 Position: Vectors in Two Dimensions 70

3.2 Displacement: Vector Addition and Subtraction in Two Dimensions 74

3.4 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 81

3.5 Projectile Motion 83

3.6 Relative Velocity 91

4 Force and Newton’s Laws 99

4.1 F orce and Mass 100

4.2 Newton’s First Law 101

4.3 Newton’s Second Law 104

4.4 Newton’s Third Law 108

4.5 Weight and the Normal Force 111

4.6 Friction 115

4.7 Tension and Pulleys, and Other Contact Forces 120

4.8 Applications I—Equilibrium 122

4.9 Applications II—Nonequilibrium 124

5 Motion Along a Circular Path 130

5.1 Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 131

5.2 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 134

5.3 Applications 137

6 Work and Energy 142

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 143

6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 148

6.3 Work done by a Variable Force and Hooke’s Law 152

6.4 Conservative Forces, Nonconservative Forces, and Potential Energy 157

6.5 Conservation of Energy 163

6.6 Power 167

7 Linear Momentum 173

7.1 Impulse and Momentum 174

7.2 The Impulse-Momentum Theorem 180

7.3 Conservation of Momentum 184

7.4 One-Dimensional Collisions 188

7.5 Two-Dimensional Collisions 192

7.6 Center of Mass 196

8 Rotational Kinematics and Energy 204

8.1 Angular Position and Displacement 205

8.2 Angular Velocity and Acceleration 208

8.3 Rotational Kinematics 211

8.4 Connection Between Rotational and Linear Quantities 215

8.5 Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia 222

8.6 E nergy Conservation for Rotating Objects 227

9 Rotational Dynamics and Torque 236

9.1 Torque 237

9.2 Torque and Static Equilibrium 242

9.3 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 248

9.4 Angular Momentum 252

9.5 Rotational Work and Power 257

9.6 Rotational Quantities as Vectors 259

10 Gravitation 264

10.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 265

10.2 Gravitational Potential Energy 270

10.3 Planetary Orbits and Kepler’s Laws 274

11 Mechanical Oscillations 281

11.1 Periodic Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion 282

11.2 Velocity and Acceleration in Simple Harmonic Motion 285

11.3 A Mass on a Spring 290

11.4 The Pendulum 294

11.5 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 297

11.6 Damped Oscillations 299

11.7 Driven Oscillations, and Resonance 304

12 Properties of Fluids and Solids 310

12.1 States of Matter and Density 311

12.2 Pressure 313

12.3 Fluids in Static Equilibrium and Pascal’s Principle 316

12.4 Archimedes’ Principle 322

12.5 Fluid Flow and the Continuity Equation 328

12.6 Bernoulli’s Equation 331

12.7 Viscosity 337

12.8 Elastic Deformation of Solids 340

13 Heat and Temperature 350

13.1 Thermometers and Temperature Scales 351

13.2 Thermal Expansion 354

13.3 Heat and Temperature Change 362

13.4 Heat and Phase Change 366

13.5 The Convection and Conduction of Heat 372

13.6 Thermal Radiation 379

14 Ideal Gases and Kinetic Theory 387

14.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro’s Number 388

14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 390

14.3 Kinetic Theory 395

15 Thermodynamics 404

15.1 The Zeroth and First Laws of Thermodynamics 405

15.2 Thermodynamic Processes 409

15.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases 411

15.4 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 418

15.5 Refrigerators 425

15.6 Entropy 427

16 Mechanical Waves 435

16.1 Waves 436

16.2 Speed of a Wave on a String 440

16.3 Sound Waves 443

16.4 The Doppler Effect 446

16.5 Intensity and Intensity Level 454

16.6 The Mathematical Description of Harmonic Waves 459

17 Interference and Standing Waves 464

17.1 Superposition and Interference 465

17.2 Standing Waves on a String 471

17.3 Standing Sound Waves 474

17.4 Beats 479

18 Electric Forces and Fields 485

18.1 Electric Charge 486

18.2 Coulomb’s Law 491

18.3 The Electric Field 496

18.4 Electric Field Lines and Conductors 503

18.5 Gauss’ Law 506

19 Electric Potential 513

19.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 514

19.2 E lectric Potential Energy of Point Charges 521

19.3 E lectric Potential of Point Charges 524

19.4 Capacitors 529

20 DC Circuits 538

20.1 E lectric Current and Electromotive Force 539

20.2 Ohm’s Law and Electrical Resistance 543

20.3 E lectrical Power and Energy 548

20.4 Resistors in Series and Parallel 550

20.5 Kirchhoff’s Rules 557

20.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 561

20.7 RC Circuits 566

21 Magnetic Forces and Fields 572

21.1 Magnetic Fields 573

21.2 The Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field 576

21.3 The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field 581

21.4 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 585

21.5 The Production of Magnetic Fields by Electric Current 589

21.6 Ampere’s Law 598

22 Electromagnetic Induction 603

22.1 Induced Emf and Motional Emf 604

22.2 Magnetic Flux 610

22.3 F araday’s Law 613

22.4 Lenz’s Law 616

22.5 Generators and Motors 622

22.6 Mutual Inductance and Transformers 625

22.7 Self Inductance and RL Circuits 628

23 AC Circuits 635

23.1 Alternating Current and Voltage 636

23.2 AC Circuits with Capacitance 639

23.3 AC Circuits with Inductance 643

23.4 RLC Circuits 645

23.5 Resonance in AC Circuits 650

24 Electromagnetic Waves 656

24.1 Light and Electromagnetic Waves 657

24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 662

24.3 E nergy in Electromagnetic Waves 664

24.4 The Doppler Effect 668

24.5 Polarization 671

25 Reflection and Mirrors 680

25.1 Wave Fronts, Rays, and Reflection 681

25.2 Plane Mirrors and Optical Images 683

25.3 Spherical Mirrors 690

25.4 Ray Tracing and Images 693

25.5 The Mirror Equation and Magnification 698

26 Refraction and Lenses 708

26.1 Refraction and Snell’s Law 709

26.2 Total Internal Reflection 716

26.3 Dispersion 721

26.4 Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 724

26.5 The Thin Lens Equation and Magnification 728

26.6 Lenses in Combination and the Human Eye 734

26.7 Optical Instruments 740

27 Interference and Diffraction 749

27.1 The Interference of Light 750

27.2 The Double-Slit Experiment 752

27.3 Single Slit Diffraction 759

27.4 Resolution 764

27.5 Diffraction Gratings 767

27.6 Thin-Film Interference 772\

28 Relativity 781

28.1 Postulates of Special Relativity 782

28.2 Time Dilation 784

28.3 Length Contraction 789

28.4 Relativistic Momentum 791

28.5 Relativistic Energy 793

28.6 Relativistic Addition of Velocities 796

29 Quantum Mechanics 802

29.1 Blackbody Radiation and Quantization 803

29.2 The Photon and the Photoelectric Effect 804

29.3 Photon Momentum and the Compton Effect 809

29.4 Wave Particle Duality 812

29.5 The Uncertainty Principle 814

30 Atomic Physics 820

30.1 The Nuclear Atom 821

30.2 The Spectrum of Hydrogen 823

30.3 The Bohr Model 825

30.4 The Quantum-Mechanical Atom 832

30.5 Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Multielectron Atoms 837

30.6 Light Emission: Fluorescence, X-Rays, and Lasers 840

31 Nuclear Physics 850

31.1 Nuclear Structure 851

31.2 Binding Energy and the Strong Force 852

31.3 Radioactive Decay 856

31.4 Half-life and Radioactive Dating 860

31.5 The Biological Effects of Radiation 866

31.6 Induced Nuclear Reactions and Fission 869

31.7 Nuclear Fusion 873

APPENDIX A: Fundamental Constants*

APPENDIX B: Useful Physical Data*

APPENDIX C: Astronomical Data*

APPENDIX D: Conversion Factors*

APPENDIX E: Conversions (British)*

APPENDIX F: Metric Prefixes*

APPENDIX G: Periodic Table of Elements*

APPENDIX H: Unit Combinations and Derived Units

APPENDIX I: Table of Isotopes

INDEX I-1