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Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation, Properties and Uses, 6th Edition

Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials: Preparation, Properties and Uses, 6th Edition

Horst Surburg, Johannes Panten

ISBN: 978-3-527-69318-4

Feb 2016

392 pages

$164.99

Description

This 6th edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and now additionally includes all commercially important flavor and fragrance materials that entered the market over the past 10 years.
In one handy and up-to-date source, this classic reference surveys those natural and synthetic materials that are commercially available, produced, and used on a relatively large scale, covering their properties, manufacturing methods employed, and areas of application.
For this new edition the chapter on essential oils has been completely revised with regard to production volumes, availability, and new product specifications, while new legal issues, such as REACH regulation aspects, are now included. Finally, the CAS registry numbers and physicochemical data of over 350 single substances and 100 essential oils have been updated and revised.

1 Introduction 1

1.1 History 1

1.2 Definition 2

1.3 Physiological Importance 2

1.4 Natural, Nature-Identical, and Artificial Products 3

1.5 Sensory Properties and Chemical Structure 3

1.6 Volatility 4

1.7 Threshold Concentration 4

1.8 Sensory Properties 4

1.8.1 Fragrance Ingredients 5

1.8.2 Flavoring Substances 6

2 Individual Fragrance and Flavor Materials 7

2.1 Aliphatic Compounds 8

2.1.1 Hydrocarbons 8

2.1.1.1 (E,Z)-1,3,5-Undecatriene [51447-08-6] 8

2.1.1.2 1,3-Undecadien-5-yne [166432-52-6] 9

2.1.2 Alcohols 9

2.1.2.1 3-Octanol [589-98-0] 9

2.1.2.2 2,6-Dimethyl-2-heptanol [13254-34-7] 10

2.1.2.3 (E)-2-Hexen-1-ol [928-95-0] 10

2.1.2.4 (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol [928-96-1], Leaf Alcohol 10

2.1.2.5 1-Octen-3-ol [3391-86-4] 10

2.1.2.6 9-Decen-1 (cipher)-ol [13019-22-2] 11

2.1.2.7 10-Undecen-1-ol [112-43-6] 11

2.1.2.8 3,4,5,6,6-Pentamethylheptan-2-ol [87118-95-4] 11

2.1.2.9 (2E,6Z)-2,6-Nonadien-1-ol [28069-72-9], Violet Leaf Alcohol 11

2.1.2.10 4-Methyl-3-decen-5-ol [81782-77-6] 12

2.1.3 Aldehydes and Acetals 12

2.1.3.1 Hexanal [66-25-1], Caproaldehyde, Aldehyde C6 13

2.1.3.2 Octanal [124-13-0], Caprylaldehyde, Aldehyde C8 13

2.1.3.3 Nonanal [124-19-6], Pelargonaldehyde, Aldehyde C9 13

2.1.3.4 Decanal [112-31-2], Caprinaldehyde, Aldehyde C10 14

2.1.3.5 Undecanal [112-44-7], Aldehyde C11 14

2.1.3.6 Dodecanal [112-54-9], Lauraldehyde, Lauric Aldehyde, Aldehyde C12 14

2.1.3.7 Tridecanal [10486-19-8] 14

2.1.3.8 2-Methyldecanal [19009-56-4], Methyloctylacetaldehyde, Aldehyde MOA 14

2.1.3.9 2-Methylundecanal [110-41-8], Methylnonylacetaldehyde, Aldehyde MNA 15

2.1.3.10 (E)-2-Hexenal [6728-26-3], Leaf Aldehyde 16

2.1.3.11 (Z)-4-Heptenal [6728-31-0] 16

2.1.3.12 2,6-Dimethyl-5-hepten-1-al [106-72-9] 16

2.1.3.13 (E)-4-Decenal [65405-70-1] 16

2.1.3.14 10-Undecenal [112-45-8] 17

2.1.3.15 2-Dodecenal [20407-84-5] 17

2.1.3.16 2,6,10-Trimethyl-5,9-undecadienal [24048-13-3] and [54082-68-7] 17

2.1.3.17 1,1-Dimethoxy-2,2,5-trimethyl-4-hexene [67674-46-8] 17

2.1.4 Ketones 18

2.1.4.1 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone [52217-02-4], Acetoin 18

2.1.4.2 2,3-Butanedione [431-03-8], Diacetyl 18

2.1.4.3 (2E)-5-Methyl-2-hepten-4-one [81925-81-7] 18

2.1.4.4 3,4,5,6,6-Pentamethyl-3-hepten-2-one [81786-73-4] 19

2.1.4.5 2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-6-octen-3-one [74338-72-0] 19

2.1.5 Acids and Esters 20

2.1.5.1 2-Methyl-2-pentenoic Acid [3142-72-1] 20

2.1.5.2 Ethyl Formate [109-94-4] 21

2.1.5.3 (Z)-3-Hexenyl Formate [33467-73-1] 21

2.1.5.4 Ethyl Acetate [141-78-6] 21

2.1.5.5 Butyl Acetate [123-86-4] 21

2.1.5.6 Isoamyl Acetate [123-92-2] 21

2.1.5.7 Hexyl Acetate [142-92-7] 21

2.1.5.8 3,5,5-Trimethylhexyl Acetate [58430-94-7], Isononyl Acetate 21

2.1.5.9 (E)-2-Hexenyl Acetate [2497-18-9] 22

2.1.5.10 (Z)-3-Hexenyl Acetate [3681-71-8] 22

2.1.5.11 Ethyl Propionate [105-37-3] 22

2.1.5.12 Ethyl Butyrate [105-54-4] 22

2.1.5.13 Butyl Butyrate [109-21-7] 22

2.1.5.14 Isoamyl Butyrate [106-27-4] 23

2.1.5.15 Hexyl Butyrate [2639-63-6] 23

2.1.5.16 (Z)-3-Hexenyl Isobutyrate [41519-23-7] 23

2.1.5.17 Ethyl Isovalerate [108-64-5] 23

2.1.5.18 Ethyl 2-Methylbutyrate [7452-79-1] 23

2.1.5.19 Ethyl Hexanoate [123-66-0], Ethyl Caproate 23

2.1.5.20 Ethyl 2-Methylpentanoate [39255-32-8] 24

2.1.5.21 2-Propenyl Hexanoate [123-68-2], Allyl Caproate 24

2.1.5.22 Ethyl Heptanoate [106-30-9], Ethyl Enanthate 24

2.1.5.23 2-Propenyl Heptanoate [142-19-8], Allyl Heptanoate, Allyl Enanthate 24

2.1.5.24 Ethyl Octanoate [106-32-1], Ethyl Caprylate 24

2.1.5.25 Methyl 2-Nonenoate [111-79-5] 24

2.1.5.26 Ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-Decadienoate [3025-30-7], Pear Ester 25

2.1.5.27 Methyl 2-Octynoate [111-12-6], Methyl Heptin Carbonate 25

2.1.5.28 Methyl 2-Nonynoate [111-80-8], Methyl Octin Carbonate 25

2.1.5.29 Propyl (2S)-2-(1,1-Dimethylpropoxy)propanoate [319002-92-1] 25

2.1.5.30 Ethyl 3-Oxobutanoate, Ethyl Acetoacetate [141-97-9] 25

2.1.5.31 (Z)-3-Hexenyl Methyl Carbonate [67633-96-9] 26

2.1.5.32 Allyl (3-Methylbutoxy)acetate, Isopentyloxyacetic Acid Allyl Ester [67634-00-8], [67634-01-9] Allyl Amylglycolate 26

2.1.6 Miscellaneous Compounds 26

2.1.6.1 Allyl Isothiocyanate [57-06-7], Allyl Mustard Oil 27

2.1.6.2 5-Methyl-3-heptanone oxime, N-Hydroxy-5-methyl-3-heptanimine [22457-23-4] 27

2.1.6.3 3-[(Z)-3-Hexenyloxy]-propanenitrile [142653-61-0] 27

2.1.6.4 N,2,3-Trimethyl-2-isopropylbutanamide [51115-67-4] ""WS 23"" 28

2.1.6.5 2-Tridecenenitrile [22629-49-8] 28

2.2 Acyclic Terpenes 29

2.2.1 Hydrocarbons 29

2.2.2 Alcohols 29

2.2.2.1 Geraniol [106-24-1], (2E)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol 30

2.2.2.2 Nerol [106-25-2], (2Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol 32

2.2.2.3 Linalool [78-70-6], 3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol 32

2.2.2.4 Myrcenol [543-39-5], 2-Methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-2-ol 35

2.2.2.5 Citronellol [26489-01-0], 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol 36

2.2.2.6 Dihydromyrcenol [18479-58-8], 2,6-Dimethyl-7-octen-2-ol 37

2.2.2.7 Tetrahydrogeraniol [106-21-8], 3,7-Dimethyloctan-1-ol 38

2.2.2.8 Tetrahydrolinalool [78-69-3], 3,7-Dimethyloctan-3-ol 38

2.2.2.9 2,6-Dimethyl-2-octanol [18479-57-7], Tetrahydromyrcenol 39

2.2.2.10 7-Methoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2-octanol [41890-92-0] 39

2.2.2.11 Farnesol [4602-84-0], 3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1 (cipher)-ol 39

2.2.2.12 Nerolidol [7212-44-4], 3,7,11-Trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol 40

2.2.3 Aldehydes and Acetals 41

2.2.3.1 Citral [5392-40-5], 3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al 41

2.2.3.2 Citral Diethyl Acetal [7492-66-2], 1,1-Diethoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene 43

2.2.3.3 Citronellal [106-23-0], 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-1-al 43

2.2.3.4 7-Hydroxydihydrocitronellal [107-75-5], ""Hydroxycitronellal,"" 3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctan-1-al 44

2.2.3.5 Methoxydihydrocitronellal [3613-30-7], 3,7-Dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-1-al 45

2.2.3.6 Hydroxydihydrocitronellal Dimethyl Acetal [141-92-4], 8,8-Dimethoxy-2,6-dimethyloctan-2-ol 46

2.2.3.7 2,6,10-Trimethyl-9-undecenal [141-13-9] 46

2.2.4 Ketones 46

2.2.4.1 Geranylacetone [689-67-8], 6,10-Dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one 47

2.2.5 Acids and Esters 47

2.2.5.1 Geranyl and Neryl Esters 48

2.2.5.2 Linalyl Esters 49

2.2.5.3 Citronellyl and Dihydromyrcenyl Esters 50

2.2.6 Miscellaneous Compounds 51

2.2.6.1 3,7-Dimethyloctanenitrile [40188-41-8] 52

2.2.6.2 Citronellic Acid Nitrile [51566-62-2], Citronellyl Nitrile 52

2.3 Cyclic Terpenes 52

2.3.1 Hydrocarbons 52

2.3.1.1 Limonene [138-86-3], 1,8-p-Menthadiene 54

2.3.1.2 γ-Terpinene [99-85-4], 1,4-p-Menthadiene 54

2.3.1.3 (−)-α-Phellandrene [4221-98-1], 1,5-p-Menthadiene 55

2.3.1.4 α-Pinene [80-56-8], 2-Pinene, 2,6,6-Trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]hept-2-ene 55

2.3.1.5 β-Pinene [127-91-3], 2(10)-Pinene 56

2.3.2 Alcohols and Ethers 56

2.3.2.1 Menthol, p-Menthan-3-ol 56

2.3.2.2 Isopulegol, 8-p-Menthen-3-ol, 5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexanol [7786-67-6], [50373-36-9] 61

2.3.2.3 α-Terpineol [98-55-5], 1-p-Menthen-8-ol 62

2.3.2.4 1-Terpinen-4-ol [562-74-3], 1-p-Menthen-4-ol 63

2.3.2.5 cis-4-(Isopropyl)cyclohexanemethanol, cis-Hexahydrocuminyl Alcohol [13828-37-0], cis-p-Menthan-7-ol 64

2.3.2.6 Borneol, endo-2-Bornanol [507-70-0] 64

2.3.2.7 3-[(l)-Menthoxy]propane-1,2-diol [87061-04-9], (l)-Menthyl Glyceryl Ether 65

2.3.2.8 Cedryl Methyl Ether [19870-74-7] and [67874-81-1] 66

2.3.3 Aldehydes and Ketones 66

2.3.3.1 Menthone, p-Menthan-3-one [10458-14-7] 66

2.3.3.2 Carvone, 1,8-p-Menthadien-6-one 67

2.3.3.3 Camphor, 1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one [76-22-2] 69

2.3.3.4 Fenchone, 1,3,3-Trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one [1195-79-5] 69

2.3.3.5 Ionones and Homologous Compounds 69

2.3.3.6 Damascones, 1-(2,6,6-Trimethylcyclohexenyl)-2-buten-1-ones 74

2.3.3.7 α-Damascone, 1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-2-buten-1-one [43052-87-5]; (Z)-: [23726-94-5]; (E)-: [24720-09-0] 74

2.3.3.8 β-Damascone, 1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-2-buten-1-one [35044-68-9]; (Z)-: [23726-92-3]; (E)-: [23726-91-2] 74

2.3.3.9 β-Damascenone [23726-93-4], 1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadienyl)-2-buten-1-one 75

2.3.3.10 δ-Damascone, 1-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2-buten-1-one [57378-68-4]; (E)-1α,2β: [71048-82-3] 75

2.3.3.11 1-(2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2-buten-1-one [39872-57-6] 75

2.3.3.12 1,3,4,6,7,8a-Hexahydro-1,1,5,5-tetramethyl-2H-2,4amethanonaphthalen-8(5H)one [23787-90-8] 76

2.3.3.13 Nootkatone, 4,4a-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-3H-naphthalen-2-one [4674-50-4] 76

2.3.3.14 Methyl Cedryl Ketone, ""MCK,"" Acetyl Cedrene 76

2.3.4 Esters 77

2.3.4.1 α,3,3-Trimethylcyclohexane-1-methanol Formate [25225-08-5] 77

2.3.4.2 (−)-Menthyl Acetate, (−)-p-Menthan-3-yl Acetate [2623-23-6] 78

2.3.4.3 rac-Menthyl Acetate [29066-34-0] 78

2.3.4.4 Menthanyl Acetate, Dihydroterpinyl Acetate [58985-18-5] 78

2.3.4.5 5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexyl 2-Hydroxy-propanoate [59259-38-0], l-Menthyl Lactate 79

2.3.4.6 α-Terpinyl Acetate [80-26-2], 1-p-Menthen-8-yl Acetate 79

2.3.4.7 Nopyl Acetate [35836-72-7], (−)-2-(6,6-Dimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-en-2-yl)-ethyl Acetate 80

2.3.4.8 Bornyl acetate, 2-endo-bornanyl Acetate [76-49-3] 80

2.3.4.9 Isobornyl Acetate [125-12-2], 2-exo-bornanyl Acetate 80

2.3.4.10 N-substituted p-Menthane-3-Carboxamides 81

2.3.4.11 N-ethyl-p-menthane-3-carboxamide [39711-79-0], ""WS 3"" (1) 81

2.3.4.12 N-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-p-menthane-3-carboxamide [68489-09-8] ""WS 12"" (2) 82

2.3.4.13 N-[[5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexyl]carbonyl]glycine Ethyl Ester [68489-14-5] ""WS 5"" (3) 82

2.3.4.14 Methyl 2,2-dimethyl-6-methylene-1-cyclohexanecarboxylate [81752-87-6] 82

2.3.4.15 Ethyl 2,6,6-Trimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate [35044-59-8] 82

2.3.4.16 Guaiyl Acetate [94333-88-7] 83

2.3.4.17 Cedryl Acetate [77-54-3] 83

2.3.4.18 Vetiveryl Acetate [62563-80-8] 83

2.3.5 Miscellaneous Compounds 84

2.3.5.1 8-Mercapto-p-menthan-3-one [38462-22-5] 84

2.3.5.2 1-p-Menthene-8-thiol [71159-90-5] 85

2.4 Other Cycloaliphatic Compounds 85

2.4.1 Alcohols and Ethers 85

2.4.1.1 1-(4-Isopropylcyclohexyl)ethanol [63767-86-2] 85

2.4.1.2 4-Cyclohexyl-2-methyl-2-butanol [83926-73-2] 86

2.4.1.3 2-Methyl-4-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)butanol [72089-08-8] 86

2.4.1.4 2-Methyl-4-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-2-buten-1-ol [28219-60-5] 87

2.4.1.5 5-(2,2,3-Trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-3-methylpentan-2-ol [65113-99-7] 87

2.4.1.6 2-Ethyl-4-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-2-buten-1-ol [28219-61-6] 88

2.4.1.7 3-Methyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-4-penten-2-ol [67801-20-1] 88

2.4.1.8 2-Methyl-4-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-4-pentenol [104864-90-6] 88

2.4.1.9 3,3-Dimethyl-5-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopenten-1-yl)-4-penten-2-ol [107898-54-4] 89

2.4.1.10 [1-Methyl-2-(1,2,2-trimethyl[3.1.0]hex-3-ylmethyl)cyclopropyl]methanol [198404-98-7] 89

2.4.1.11 3-trans-Isocamphylcyclohexanol [4105-12-8] 89

2.4.1.12 1-(2,2,6-Trimethylcyclohexyl)hexan-3-ol [70788-30-6] 90

2.4.1.13 2,5,5-Trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7-octahydronaphthalen-2-ol [41199-19-3], Ambrinol 91

2.4.1.14 1-[[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)cyclohexyl]oxy]-2-butanol, [139504-68-0] 91

2.4.1.15 2-(2,2,7,7-Tetramethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0](1,6)undec-5-en-5-yl)propan-1-ol, 2-(2,2,7,7-etramethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0](1,6)undec-4-en-5-yl)propan-1-ol, [929625-08-1], [1001252-30-7] 92

2.4.1.16 Cyclododecyl Methyl Ether [2986-54-1], Methoxycyclododecane 92

2.4.1.17 (Ethoxymethoxy)cyclododecane [58567-11-6] 92

2.4.2 Aldehydes 93

2.4.2.1 2,4-Dimethyl-3-cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde [68039-49-6] 93

2.4.2.2 4-(4-Methyl-3-penten-1-yl)-3-cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde [37677-14-8] 93

2.4.2.3 1-Methyl-4-(4-methyl-3-penten-1-yl)-3-cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde [52474-60-9] 93

2.4.2.4 4-(4-Hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde [31906-04-4] 94

2.4.2.5 2-Methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-2-butenal [3155-71-3] 94

2.4.3 Ketones 94

2.4.3.1 2-Pentylcyclopentanone [4819-67-4] 94

2.4.3.2 2-Heptylcyclopentanone [137-03-1] 95

2.4.3.3 2,2,5-Trimethyl-5-pentylcyclopentanone [65443-14-3] 95

2.4.3.4 Dihydrojasmone[1128-08-1], 3-Methyl-2-pentyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one 96

2.4.3.5 (Z)-Jasmone [488-10-8], 3-Methyl-2-[(2Z)-2-penten-1-yl]-2-cyclopenten-1-one 96

2.4.3.6 4-tert-Pentylcyclohexanone [16587-71-6] 97

2.4.3.7 6,7-Dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H)-indanone [33704-61-9] 97

2.4.3.8 Cyclopentadecanone [502-72-7] 97

2.4.3.9 (E/Z)-3-Methyl-5-cyclotetradecen-1-one [259854-70-1] 98

2.4.3.10 (Z)-4-Cyclopentadecenone [14595-54-1] 98

2.4.3.11 3-Methylcyclopentadecanone [541-91-3], Muscone 99

2.4.3.12 3-Methylcyclopentadecenone [82356-51-2] 99

2.4.3.13 Cyclohexadecanone [2550-52-9] 100

2.4.3.14 5-Cyclohexadecen-1-one [37609-25-9] 100

2.4.3.15 (E/Z)-7/8-Cyclohexadecenone (Mixture of Isomers) [888642-03-9], [3100-36-5] 101

2.4.3.16 (E/Z)-8-Cyclohexadecenone [3100-36-5] 101

2.4.3.17 (Z)-9-Cycloheptadecen-1-one [542-46-1], Civetone 102

2.4.3.18 1-(5,5-Dimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-penten-1-one [56973-85-4] 102

2.4.3.19 2-Cyclohexyl-1,6-heptadien-3-one [313973-37-4] 102

2.4.3.20 1-Spiro[4.5]dec-7-en-7-yl-4-penten-1-one, 1-Spiro[4.5]dec-6-en-7-yl-4-penten-1-one [224031-70-3] 103

2.4.3.21 2,3,8,8-Tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2-naphthalenyl Methyl Ketone [54464-57-2], (1-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-Octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl)ethan-1-one [166090-45-5], OTNE 103

2.4.3.22 4-(2-Butenylidene)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one and Isomers [13215-88-8] 104

2.4.3.23 Methyl 2,6,10-Trimethyl-2,5,9-cyclododecatrien-1-yl Ketone [28371-99-5] 104

2.4.3.24 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one; 3-Methyl-2-cyclopenten-2-ol-1-one [80-71-7], Cyclotene 105

2.4.3.25 4-(1-Ethoxyvinyl)-3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclohexanone [36306-87-3] 105

2.4.4 Esters 106

2.4.4.1 2-tert-Butylcyclohexyl Acetate [88-41-5], OTBCHA 106

2.4.4.2 4-tert-Butylcyclohexyl Acetate [32210-23-4], PTBCHA 106

2.4.4.3 (Z)-3-Hexenyl Cyclopropanecarboxylate [188570-78-7] 107

2.4.4.4 4,7-Methano-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-5 (or 6)-Indenyl Acetate [2500-83-6] (or [5413-60-5]) 107

2.4.4.5 Allyl 3-Cyclohexylpropionate [2705-87-5] 107

2.4.4.6 Ethyl 2-Ethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate [57934-97-1], and Ethyl 2,3,6,6-Tetramethyl-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate [77851-07-1] 108

2.4.4.7 Allyl Cyclohexyloxyacetate [68901-15-5], Cyclohexyloxyacetic Acid Allyl Ester 108

2.4.4.8 [2-[1-(3,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)ethoxy]-2-methyl-propyl] Propanoate [141773-73-1] 108

2.4.4.9 [2-[1-(3,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)ethoxy]-2-oxo-ethyl] Propanoate; 2-(1-Oxopropoxy)-acetic Acid 1-(3,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl Ester [236391-76-7] 109

2.4.4.10 Methyl Jasmonate [1211-29-6], 3-Oxo-2-[(2Z)-2-pentenyl]cyclopentaneacetic Acid Methyl Ester 109

2.4.4.11 Methyl Dihydrojasmonate [24851-98-7], Methyl (3-oxo-2-pentylyclopentyl)acetate 110

2.4.4.12 Methyl 2-Hexyl-3-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate [37172-53-5] 112

2.4.5 Miscellaneous Compounds 113

2.4.5.1 1,5-Dimethylbicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-one oxime [75147-23-8] 113

2.5 Aromatic Compounds 113

2.5.1 Hydrocarbons 113

2.5.2 Alcohols and Ethers 113

2.5.2.1 Benzyl Alcohol [100-51-6] 114

2.5.2.2 Phenylethyl Alcohol [60-12-8], 2-Phenylethyl Alcohol 115

2.5.2.3 Phenylethyl Methyl Ether [3558-60-9] 116

2.5.2.4 Phenylethyl Isoamyl Ether [56011-02-0] 116

2.5.2.5 Acetaldehyde Ethyl Phenylethyl Acetal [2556-10-7] 116

2.5.2.6 1-Phenylethyl Alcohol [98-85-1], Styrallyl Alcohol 116

2.5.2.7 Dihydrocinnamic Alcohol [122-97-4], 3-Phenylpropanol 117

2.5.2.8 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-propanol [13351-61-6] 117

2.5.2.9 2,2-Dimethyl-3-(3-methylphenyl)propanol [103694-68-4] 118

2.5.2.10 α,α-Dimethylphenylethyl Alcohol [100-86-7], 2-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-propanol, α,α-Dimethyl Benzyl Carbinol 118

2.5.2.11 2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol [103-05-9], α,α-Dimethylphenylethyl Carbinol 118

2.5.2.12 2-Methyl-5-phenylpentanol [25634-93-9] 119

2.5.2.13 3-Methyl-5-phenylpentanol [55066-48-3] 119

2.5.2.14 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-3-pentanol [10415-87-9], Phenylethyl Methyl Ethyl Carbinol 119

2.5.2.15 Cinnamic alcohol [104-54-1], 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-ol 120

2.5.3 Aldehydes and Acetals 120

2.5.3.1 Benzaldehyde [100-52-7] 121

2.5.3.2 Phenylacetaldehyde [122-78-1] 121

2.5.3.3 Phenylacetaldehyde Dimethyl Acetal [101-48-4] 122

2.5.3.4 Dihydrocinnamaldehyde [104-53-0], 3-Phenylpropanal 122

2.5.3.5 Hydratropaldehyde [93-53-8], 2-Phenylpropanal 122

2.5.3.6 Hydratropaldehyde Dimethyl Acetal [90-87-9] 123

2.5.3.7 4-Methylphenylacetaldehyde [104-09-6] 123

2.5.3.8 3-Methyl-5-phenylpentanal [55066-49-4] 123

2.5.3.9 3-(4-Ethylphenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropanal [67634-15-5] 123

2.5.3.10 3-[4-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)phenyl]propanal [18127-01-0] 124

2.5.3.11 Cyclamenaldehyde [103-95-7], 2-Methyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)propanal 124

2.5.3.12 3-(3-Isopropylphenyl)butanal [125109-85-5] 125

2.5.3.13 4-tert-Butyl-α-methyldihydrocinnamaldehyde [80-54-6], 2-Methyl-3-(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)propanal, BMHCA 125

2.5.3.14 2-Methyl-3-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanal [6658-48-6] 126

2.5.3.15 Cinnamaldehyde [14371-10-9], 3-Phenyl-2-propenal 126

2.5.3.16 α-Amylcinnamaldehyde [122-40-7], 2-Pentyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal 127

2.5.3.17 α-Hexylcinnamaldehyde [101-86-0], 2-Hexyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal 127

2.5.4 Ketones 128

2.5.4.1 Acetophenone [98-86-2], Methyl Phenyl Ketone 128

2.5.4.2 4-Methylacetophenone [122-00-9], p-Tolyl Methyl Ketone 128

2.5.4.3 Benzylacetone [2550-26-7], 4-Phenyl-2-butanone 129

2.5.4.4 Methyl 2-Naphthyl Ketone, Methyl β-Naphthyl Ketone [93-08-3] 129

2.5.4.5 Benzophenone [119-61-9], Diphenyl Ketone 129

2.5.4.6 5-Acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,6-hexamethylindane [15323-35-0] 130

2.5.4.7 4-Acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindane [13171-00-1] 130

2.5.4.8 5-Acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane [68140-48-7] 131

2.5.4.9 1-(5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone [1506-02-1], [21145-77-7], 6-Acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN) 132

2.5.5 Esters of Araliphatic Alcohols and Aliphatic Acids 133

2.5.5.1 Benzyl Acetate [140-11-4] 133

2.5.5.2 Benzyl Propionate [122-63-4] 133

2.5.5.3 Benzyl Isovalerate [103-38-8] 133

2.5.5.4 Phenylethyl Acetate [103-45-7] 134

2.5.5.5 Phenylethyl Isobutyrate [103-48-0] 134

2.5.5.6 Phenylethyl Isovalerate [140-26-1] 134

2.5.5.7 1-Phenylethyl Acetate [50373-55-2], Styrallyl Acetate 134

2.5.5.8 α-Trichloromethylbenzyl Acetate [90-17-5] 135

2.5.5.9 α,α-Dimethylphenylethyl Acetate [151-05-3] 135

2.5.5.10 α,α-Dimethylphenylethyl Butyrate [10094-34-5] 136

2.5.5.11 Cinnamyl Acetate [21040-45-9] 136

2.5.6 Aromatic Acids 136

2.5.6.1 Phenylacetic Acid [103-82-2] 136

2.5.7 Esters Derived from Aromatic and Araliphatic Acids 137

2.5.7.1 Benzoates 137

2.5.7.2 Phenylacetates 138

2.5.7.3 Cinnamates 138

2.5.8 Miscellaneous Compounds 139

2.5.8.1 Musk ketone [81-14-1], 3,5-Dinitro-2,6-dimethyl-4-tertbutylacetophenone 139

2.5.8.2 Cinnamonitrile [4360-47-8] 140

2.5.8.3 3-Methyl-5-phenyl-2-pentenonitrile [93893-89-1] 140

2.5.8.4 2-Cyclohexylidene-2-phenylacetonitrile [10461-98-0] 141

2.5.8.5 Methyl Anthranilate [134-20-3] 141

2.5.8.6 Methyl N-Methylanthranilate [85-91-6] 142

2.5.8.7 2-Ethyl-N-methyl-N-(3-methylphenyl)butanamide [406488-30-0] 142

2.6 Phenols and Phenol Derivatives 143

2.6.1 Phenols, Phenyl Esters, and Phenyl Ethers 143

2.6.1.1 Diphenyl Ether [101-84-8] 143

2.6.1.2 Phenoxyacetic Acid 2-Propenyl Ester [7493-74-5], Phenoxyacetic Acid Allyl Ester 143

2.6.1.3 Thymol [89-83-8], 2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol 144

2.6.1.4 Anethole [104-46-1], 1-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene 144

2.6.1.5 1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-methoxybenzene [16510-27-3] 146

2.6.1.6 2-Phenoxyethyl Isobutyrate [103-60-6] 146

2.6.1.7 Methyl 2-Naphthyl Ether [93-04-9], 2-Methoxynaphthalene, Nerolin Yara-Yara 146

2.6.1.8 Ethyl 2-Naphthyl Ether [93-18-5], 2-Ethoxynaphthalene, Nerolin Bromelia 147

2.6.1.9 Isobutyl 2-Naphthyl Ether [2173-57-1], 2-(2-Methyl-2-propoxy)naphthalene 147

2.6.1.10 Hydroquinone Dimethyl Ether [150-78-7], 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene 147

2.6.1.11 Isoeugenol [97-54-1], 2-Methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)phenol 147

2.6.1.12 Isoeugenol Methyl Ether [93-16-3], Methyl Isoeugenol 148

2.6.1.13 Eugenol [97-53-0], 2-Methoxy-4-allylphenol 148

2.6.1.14 Eugenol Methyl Ether [93-15-2], Methyl Eugenol 149

2.6.1.15 Eugenol Acetate [93-28-7] 149

2.6.1.16 Propenylguethol [94-86-0], 2-Ethoxy-5-(1-propenyl)phenol 150

2.6.1.17 p-Cresyl Phenylacetate [101-94-0] 150

2.6.2 Phenol Alcohols and Their Esters 150

2.6.2.1 Anise Alcohol [105-13-5], 4-Methoxybenzyl Alcohol 151

2.6.2.2 Anisyl Acetate [104-21-2] 151

2.6.3 Phenol Aldehydes 151

2.6.3.1 p-Anisaldehyde [123-11-5], 4-Methoxybenzaldehyde 151

2.6.3.2 2-Methyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propanal [5462-06-6] 152

2.6.3.3 Vanillin [121-33-5], 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde 152

2.6.3.4 Veratraldehyde [120-14-9], 3,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehyde 155

2.6.3.5 Ethylvanillin [121-32-4], 3-Ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde 155

2.6.3.6 Heliotropin [120-57-0], Piperonal, 3,4-Methylenedioxybenzaldehyde 156

2.6.3.7 2-Methyl-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propanal [1205-17-0] 157

2.6.4 Phenol Ketones 157

2.6.4.1 4-Methoxyacetophenone [100-06-1], Acetanisole 158

2.6.4.2 4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone [5471-51-2], Raspberry Ketone 158

2.6.5 Phenolcarboxylates 158

2.6.5.1 Salicylates 158

2.6.5.2 Resorcylic Acid Esters 160

2.7 O-, O,S- and S,S-Heterocycles 161

2.7.1 Cyclic Ethers 161

2.7.1.1 1,8-Cineole [470-82-6], 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane, Eucalyptol 162

2.7.1.2 Rose Oxide [16409-43-1], 4-Methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)tetrahydropyran 163

2.7.1.3 Menthofuran [494-90-6], 3,6-Dimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzofuran 164

2.7.1.4 Linalool Oxide, 2-Methyl-2-vinyl-5-(α-hydroxyisopropyl)tetrahydrofuran 165

2.7.1.5 6-Butyl-3,6-dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-2H-pyran [24237-00-1] 165

2.7.1.6 1,5,9-Trimethyl-13-oxabicyclo[10.1.0]trideca-4,8-diene [13786-79-3] 166

2.7.1.7 3a,6,6,9a-Tetramethyldodecahydronaphtho[2,1-b]furan [6790-58-5], [3738-00-9], Ambergris Oxide 166

2.7.1.8 Decahydro-2,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-2H-indeno[4,5-b]furan [338735-71-0] 167

2.7.1.9 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone [3658-77-3], Pineapple Ketone 168

2.7.1.10 2-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone [27538-10-9] and 5-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone [27538-09-6], ""Homofuraneol"" 169

2.7.1.11 Maltol [118-71-8], 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one 169

2.7.1.12 Ethylmaltol [4940-11-8], 2-Ethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one 169

2.7.1.13 2-Isobutyl-4-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ol [63500-71-0] 170

2.7.1.14 3-Pentyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ol Acetate [18871-14-2] 170

2.7.1.15 4,6,6,7,8,8-Hexamethyl-1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydrocyclopenta[g]benzopyran [1222-05-5], ""HHCB"" 171

2.7.1.16 2-Butyl-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxane [54546-26-8] 172

2.7.1.17 6-Isopropyl-9-methyl-1,4-dioxaspiro[4,5]decane-2-methanol [63187-91-7], Menthone Glycerine Acetal 172

2.7.1.18 Hexahydro-1′,1′,5′,5′-tetramethyl-spiro[1,3-dioxolane-2,8′(5′H)-[2H-2,4a]-methanonaphthalene] [154171-76-3], [154171-77-4] 172

2.7.1.19 2-(2,4-Dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)-1,3-dioxane [117933-89-8] 173

2.7.1.20 Dodecahydro-3,8,8,11a-tetramethyl-5H-3,5a-epoxynaphth[2,1-c]oxepin [57345-19-4], 8,13;13,20-Diepoxy-15,16-dinor-8βH-labdane, Ambraketal 173

2.7.1.21 (4aR,5R,7aS,9R)-Octahydro-2,2,5,8,8,9a-hexamethyl-4H-4a,9-methanozuleno[5,6-d]-1,3-dioxole [211299-54-6] 174

2.7.1.22 Phenylacetaldehyde glycerine Acetal [29895-73-6],2-Benzyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-methanol 174

2.7.1.23 2,4,6-Trimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxane [5182-36-5] 175

2.7.1.24 4,4a,5,9b-Tetrahydroindeno[1,2-d]-m-dioxin [18096-62-3] 175

2.7.1.25 4,4a,5,9b-Tetrahydro-2,4-dimethylindeno[1,2-d]-1,3-dioxin [27606-09-3] 175

2.7.1.26 7-Methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one [28940-11-6], Watermelon Ketone 176

2.7.1.27 Ethyl (2-Methyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-acetate [6413-10-1], (2-Methyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-acetic Acid Ethyl Ester 176

2.7.1.28 Ethyl (2,4-Dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-acetate [6290-17-1], (2,4-Dimethyl[1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-acetic Acid Ethyl Ester 176

2.7.1.29 1-(3-Methylbenzofuran-2-yl)-ethanone [23911-56-0] 177

2.7.1.30 cis-2-Methyl-4-propyl-1,3-oxathiane [59323-76-1] 177

2.7.2 Lactones 177

2.7.2.1 γ-Octalactone [104-50-7] (R=n-CH3−(CH2)3−) 178

2.7.2.2 γ-Nonalactone [104-61-0] (R=n-CH3−(CH2)4−), the So-Called ""Aldehyde C18"" 178

2.7.2.3 γ-Decalactone [706-14-9] (R=n-CH3−(CH2)5−) 178

2.7.2.4 γ-Undecalactone [104-67-6] (R=n-CH3–(CH2)6–), the So-Called ""Aldehyde C14"" 179

2.7.2.5 β-Methyl-γ-octalactone [39212-23-2], Whiskey Lactone 179

2.7.2.6 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone [28664-35-9], Sotolone 179

2.7.2.7 5-Ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5)-furanone [698-10-2], Abhexone, Maple Furanone 180

2.7.2.8 δ-Decalactone [705-86-2] 180

2.7.2.9 δ-Dodecalactone [713-95-1] 181

2.7.2.10 15-Pentadecanolide [106-02-5], 15-Hydroxypentadecanoic Acid Lactone 181

2.7.2.11 15-Pentadec-11-enolide/15-Pentadec-12-enolide (Mixture of (E)-and (Z)-Isomers) [34902-57-3] 183

2.7.2.12 9-Hexadecen-16-olide [28645-51-4], Oxacycloheptadec-10-en-2-one, Ambrettolide 183

2.7.2.13 Oxa-16-hexadecanolides 184

2.7.2.14 1,12-Dodecanedioic Acid Ethylene Ester [54982-83-1] 184

2.7.2.15 1,13-Tridecanedioic Acid Ethylene Ester [105-95-3], Ethylene Brassylate (n = 11) 185

2.7.2.16 Coumarin [91-64-5], 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one 185

2.7.2.17 Dihydrocoumarin [119-84-6], 3,4-Dihydro-2Hbenzopyran-2-one 186

2.7.3 Glycidates 187

2.7.3.1 Ethyl 3-Phenylglycidate [121-39-1], the So-Called ""Aldehyde C16 Special"" 187

2.7.3.2 Ethyl 3-Methyl-3-phenylglycidate [77-83-8], the So-Called ""Aldehyde C16,"" Strawberry Aldehyde 187

2.7.4 Miscellaneous Compounds 188

2.7.4.1 2-Furylmethanethiol [98-02-2], Furfuryl Mercaptan 188

2.8 N- and N,S-Heterocycles 188

3 Natural RawMaterials in the Flavor and Fragrance Industry 193

3.1 Introduction 193

3.2 Isolation of Natural Fragrance and Flavor Concentrates 194

3.2.1 Essential Oils 195

3.2.2 Extracts 196

3.3 Survey of Natural Raw Materials 197

4 Analytical Methods/Quality Control 265

5 Safety Evaluation and Regulatory Aspects 267

5.1 Flavoring Substances 267

5.2 Fragrance Ingredients 268

References 271

Formula Index 317

Subject Index 341

""...The excellent and concise introduction to this unique industry is followed by extensive information on nearly 500 of the most used fragrance and flavor compounds. Names, molecular formula, physical data, odor and flavor descriptions, uses, and a number of processes for the larger volume chemicals are all included. Successive chapters deal with essential oils, animal secretions, quality control, toxicology and literature. The formula, name and CAS registry number index are invaluable and timely additions."" - Perfumer and Flavorist

""...Data that would normally have to be selected from many different books are available in one source with this book...with over 800 citations throughout the text, this is a nearly inexhaustible source of information."" - Euromaterials

""In the meanwhile this book is a classical wide-spread and well-known publication for everybody involved or interested in flavor and fragrance and for individuals active in perfume and flavor applications, for example food technologists, chemists and even laymen."" - Advances in Food Sciences

""...This book provides a lot of useful information in one place, and it is an especially good resource for somebody just entering the flavor and fragrance industry."" - Journal of Medical Chemistry

""You´ll find much information in this book not found in other works."" - Foster´s Herb Business Bulletin

""Particular useful for natural product chemists, those in the product development and the curios."" - Herbalgram

""...In conclusion, this work is highly recommended to all readers as a source of valuable information.""
Organic Process Research & Development Journal, 09/2007