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CompTIA Complete Study Guide 3 Book Set, Updated for New A+ Exams

CompTIA Complete Study Guide 3 Book Set, Updated for New A+ Exams

Quentin Docter, Emmett Dulaney, Todd Lammle, Toby Skandier, Chuck Easttom

ISBN: 978-1-119-30310-7

Jul 2016

2904 pages

Select type: Paperback

In Stock

$125.00

Description

Get ready for the CompTIA A+, Network+ and Security+ certifications

If you're an IT professional hoping to progress in your career, then you know how important the CompTIA certifications are. Sybex Study Guides cover 100% of all exam objectives with real-world scenarios that give you hands-on experience. You will study smarter with the Sybex interactive learning environment that provides, flashcards for last minute exam prep, practice tests to help you narrow in on areas where you need further review, and a searchable glossary of all key terms. CompTIA authorized and endorsed, this Sybex Kit offers full test prep for the CompTIA A+, Network+, and Security+ latest exams so you can jumpstart your career.

  • Includes updates covering the latest changes to the exams
  • Covers key topics like network security, compliance and operational security, threats and vulnerabilities, access control and identity management, and cryptography
  • Reviews the components of personal computers, laptops, and portable devices
  • Covers operating systems, networks, and security
  • Provides latest on safety and environmental issues
  • Demonstrates communication and the ""soft skills"" of professionalism
  • Employs practical examples and insights to provide real-world context from leading certification experts

CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide: Exams 220-901 and 220-902

Introduction xxix

Assessment Test lvii

Part I 220-901 1

Chapter 1 Motherboards, Processors, and Memory 3

Identifying Components of Motherboards 5

System Board Form Factors 6

System Board Components 8

Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Processors 32

Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Memory 38

Important Memory Terms 38

Types of Memory 43

Memory Packaging 50

Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Cooling Systems 54

Fans 54

Memory Cooling 58

Hard Drive Cooling 58

Chipset Cooling 58

CPU Cooling 59

Summary 63

Exam Essentials 63

Review Questions 65

Performance-Based Question 1 69

Performance-Based Question 2 69

Chapter 2 Storage Devices and Power Supplies 71

Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Storage Devices 72

Hard Disk Drive Systems 72

Solid-State Drives 77

Optical Storage Drives 79

Drive Interfaces and RAID 85

Removable Storage and Media 89

Installing, Removing, and Configuring Storage Devices 95

Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Power Supplies 98

Dual-Rail Architecture 99

Power and Voltage Ratings 99

Power Connectors 100

Replacing Power Supplies 106

AC Adapters as Power Supplies 107

Summary 108

Exam Essentials 108

Review Questions 109

Performance-Based Question 112

Chapter 3 Peripherals and Expansion 113

Installing and Configuring Expansion Cards 117

Video 118

Multimedia 119

I/O 120

Communications 120

Adapter Configuration 126

Identifying Characteristics of Connectors and Cables 126

Device Connector Types 127

Common Peripheral Cables and Their Interfaces 134

Video Display Cables and Connectors 146

Input Devices 157

Mouse 158

Touchpad 159

Keyboard 161

Scanner 163

Barcode Reader 165

Digitizer 166

Biometric Devices 167

Gamepads and Joysticks 168

Motion Sensor 168

Smart Card Reader 169

Multimedia Input Devices 170

Output Devices 173

Printers 174

Speakers 174

Display Devices 174

Input and Output Devices 174

Touchscreens 175

KVM Switch 175

Smart TV 176

Set-Top Box 177

Summary 177

Exam Essentials 178

Review Questions 179

Performance-Based Questions 182

Chapter 4 Display Devices 183

Understanding Display Types and Settings 184

Video Display Types 184

Adjusting Display Settings 195

Understanding Video Standards and Technologies 205

Video Standards 205

Advanced Video Resolutions and Concepts 207

Summary 212

Exam Essentials 213

Review Questions 214

Performance-Based Question 217

Chapter 5 Custom Configurations 219

Standard Thick Clients 222

Graphic and CAD/CAM Design Workstations 223

CPU Enhancements 223

Video Enhancements 224

Maximized RAM 224

Audio/Video Editing Workstations 225

Video Enhancements 225

Specialized Audio 226

Specialized Hard Drives 226

Virtualization Workstations 227

CPU Enhancements 228

Maximized RAM 228

Gaming PCs 230

CPU Enhancements 230

Video Enhancements 231

Specialized Audio 231

Enhanced Cooling 232

Home Theater PCs 232

Video Enhancements 234

Specialized Audio 234

Special Chassis and TV Tuner 234

Thin Clients 235

Home Server PCs 236

Media Streaming Capabilities 237

File and Print Sharing Services 240

Gigabit NIC 240

RAID Array 241

Summary 241

Exam Essentials 241

Review Questions 243

Performance-Based Question 246

Chapter 6 Networking Fundamentals 247

Understanding Networking Principles 249

Understanding Networking Fundamentals 250

Identifying Common Network Hardware 270

Network Interface Cards (NICs) 270

Cables and Connectors 272

Networking Components 284

Summary 289

Exam Essentials 290

Review Questions 292

Performance-Based Question 295

Chapter 7 Introduction to TCP/IP 297

Understanding TCP/IP 299

TCP/IP Structure 300

Understanding IP Addressing 308

Summary 322

Exam Essentials 323

Review Questions 324

Performance-Based Question 327

Chapter 8 Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks 329

Understanding Wireless Networking 331

802.11 Networking Standards 332

802.11 Devices 338

Wireless Encryption Methods 339

Installing and Configuring SOHO Networks 341

Choosing Connection Types 341

Installing the Network 363

Configuring a Wireless Router 373

Summary 386

Exam Essentials 387

Review Questions 388

Performance-Based Question 391

Chapter 9 Understanding Laptops 393

Understanding Laptop Architecture 396

Laptops vs. Desktops 396

Laptop Case 398

Motherboards and Processors 399

Memory 402

Storage 403

Input Devices 406

Expansion Buses and Ports 414

Docking Stations 422

Power Systems 424

Laptop Displays 427

Cable Locks 431

Disassembling and Reassembling Laptops 432

Using the Right Tools 432

Replacing Laptop Components 434

Summary 448

Exam Essentials 448

Review Questions 450

Performance-Based Question 453

Chapter 10 Understanding Mobile Devices 455

Understanding Mobile Devices 457

Characteristics of Mobile Devices 458

Tablets 461

Smartphones 463

Phablets 469

e-Readers 471

GPS 473

Smart Cameras 476

Wearable Technology Devices 477

Connection Types 484

Mobile Device Accessories 490

Summary 492

Exam Essentials 492

Review Questions 494

Performance-Based Question 497

Chapter 11 Installing and Configuring Printers 499

Understanding Print Technologies and Imaging Processes 502

Impact Printers 503

Inkjet 505

Laser Printers 513

Thermal Printers 524

Virtual Printers 525

Installing and Configuring Printers 527

Printer Interface Components 527

Installing and Sharing Local Printers 532

Installing and Sharing Networked Printers 542

Performing Printer Maintenance and Upgrades 550

Performing Printer Maintenance 551

Installing Printer Upgrades 556

Summary 559

Exam Essentials 560

Review Questions 562

Performance-Based Question 565

Chapter 12 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting 567

Troubleshooting Core Hardware Issues 574

Troubleshooting Motherboards, CPUs, RAM, and Power Problems 575

Troubleshooting Storage Device Problems 588

Troubleshooting Video Issues 593

Troubleshooting Mobile Devices, Printers, and Networking 595

Troubleshooting Common Mobile Device Issues 595

Troubleshooting Printer Problems 607

Troubleshooting Networking Problems 630

Summary 652

Exam Essentials 653

Review Questions 655

Performance-Based Question 658

Part II 220-902 659

Chapter 13 Operating System Basics 661

Understanding Operating Systems 662

Operating System Terms and Concepts 664

Minimum System Requirements 665

The Windows Interface 669

What’s in a Window? 685

Updating Windows 689

Creating Restore Points 690

File Management 691

Going Virtual 698

Preparing for the Exam 699

Summary 702

Exam Essentials 702

Review Questions 703

Performance-Based Question 706

Chapter 14 Operating System Administration 707

Interacting with Operating Systems 709

Control Panel 709

The Command Prompt 721

Virtual Memory 733

Administrative Tools 734

Task Manager 734

MMC 739

Computer Management 739

Services 740

Performance Monitor 740

Task Scheduler 741

Windows System Configuration Tools 742

Power Management 748

Disk Management 749

Getting Disks Ready to Store Files and Programs 749

Backing Up the Data on Your Drives 753

Checking the Health of Hard Disks and Optimizing Their Performance 753

User Authentication 754

Summary 755

Exam Essentials 755

Review Questions 757

Performance-Based Question 761

Chapter 15 Working with Windows 8/8.1 763

Windows Editions 764

Installing Windows 8 769

Unattended Installation/Image Deployment 773

Remote Network Installation 773

Multiboot Installation 774

Repair Installation/Refresh/Restore 774

Recovery Partition 774

Windows 8 Boot Methods 776

Internal Hard Drive (Partition) 776

External/Hot Swappable Drive 776

Flash Drives 777

Solid-State Drives 777

Netboot 777

Summary 777

Exam Essentials 778

Review Questions 779

Performance-Based Question 782

Chapter 16 Working with Windows 7 783

Windows 7 Editions 785

Installing Windows 7 791

Upgrading to Windows 7 792

Upgrading Editions of Windows 7 796

Installation/Upgrade Boot Options 797

The Windows 7 Boot Sequences 797

Key Boot Files 797

Windows 7 Features 798

Tools in Windows 7 798

Windows 7 Administrative Tools 804

Local Users and Groups 804

Local Security Policy 805

System Configuration 807

Component Services 808

Data Sources 808

Print Management 809

Windows Memory Diagnostics 810

Unique Control Panel Utilities 810

HomeGroup 810

RemoteApp and Desktop Connections 810

Troubleshooting 811

Networking and Windows 7 813

Configuring an Alternative IP Address in Windows 814

Network Card Properties 815

Configuring Windows Networking 816

Windows 7 System Performance and Optimization 817

Summary 819

Exam Essentials 819

Review Questions 821

Performance-Based Question 826

Chapter 17 Working with Windows Vista 827

Windows Vista Editions 829

Installing Windows Vista 832

Clean Install 832

Upgrading to Windows Vista 833

Transferring to Windows Vista 835

The Windows Vista Boot Sequences 835

Key Boot Files 835

Windows Vista Features 836

Tools in Windows Vista 836

Windows Vista Administrative Tools 840

Users and Groups 840

Local Security Policy 841

System Configuration 843

Component Services 845

Data Sources 845

Print Management 845

Windows Memory Diagnostics 846

Distinctive Utilities 847

Tablet PC Settings 847

Pen and Input Devices 848

Offline Files 849

Problem Reports and Solutions 850

Printers 852

Networking and Windows Vista 852

Vista System Performance and Optimization 855

Aero 856

User Account Control 857

Indexing 858

Sidebar 859

Summary 860

Exam Essentials 860

Review Questions 861

Performance-Based Question 865

Chapter 18 Working with Mac OS and Linux 867

Best Practices 868

Scheduled Backups 868

Scheduled Disk Maintenance 871

System Updates/App Store 871

Patch Management 871

Driver/Firmware Updates 873

Antivirus/Antimalware Updates 873

Tools 873

Features 874

Basic Linux Commands 877

Understanding the Syntax of Shell Commands 878

Discovering and Using Linux Commands 879

Becoming root (Superuser) 881

Managing Processes 881

Directory Navigation 883

Directory Listings 884

Changing Permissions and Ownership 885

Working with Files 886

Working with Directories 887

Networking Utilities 887

Summary 888

Exam Essentials 888

Review Questions 889

Performance-Based Question 892

Chapter 19 Security 893

Common Prevention Methods 896

Physical Security 897

Digital Security 899

User Education/AUP 905

Principle of Least Privilege 906

Email Filtering 906

Virtual Private Networks 906

Common Security Threats 907

Social Engineering 907

Password Attacks 908

Malware 909

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 909

Rootkits 910

Phishing 910

Shoulder Surfing 911

Spyware 911

Viruses 912

Worms 917

Trojans 918

Ransomware 918

Spoofing 918

Zero-Day Attack 919

Zombie/Botnet 919

Non-Complaint Systems 920

Workstation Security Best Practices 920

Setting Strong Passwords 920

Requiring Passwords and Expiration 921

Account Management 921

Restricting User Permissions 921

Add Login Time Restrictions 921

Act on Failed Login Attempts 922

Changing Default Usernames 922

Disabling the Guest Account 922

Screensaver Required Password 922

Disable Autorun 922

Data Loss Prevention 923

Working with Windows OS Security Settings 923

Users and Groups 923

NTFS vs. Share Permissions 925

Shared Files and Folders 927

System Files and Folders 928

User Authentication 928

BitLocker and BitLocker To Go 929

EFS 929

Mobile Device Security 929

Screen Locks 930

Remote Wipes and Locator Applications 931

Remote Backup 934

Operating System Updates 934

Destruction and Disposal Methods 935

Recycling or Repurposing Best Practices 936

Low-Level Format vs. Standard Format 936

Hard Drive Sanitation and Sanitation Methods 936

Physical Destruction 937

Securing a SOHO Network (Wireless) 939

Change Default Usernames and Passwords 940

Changing the SSID 940

Setting Encryption 940

Disabling SSID Broadcast 940

Enable MAC Filtering 940

Antenna and Access Point Placement 941

Radio Power Levels 941

Assign Static IP Addresses 941

WPS 942

Securing a SOHO Network (Wired) 942

Change Default Usernames and Passwords 942

Assign Static IP Addresses 943

Disabling Ports 943

Physical Security 943

Summary 945

Exam Essentials 945

Review Questions 947

Performance-Based Question 951

Chapter 20 Network Services, Cloud Computing, and Virtualization 953

Understanding Network Services 955

Server Roles 956

Internet Appliances 971

Legacy and Embedded Systems 973

Understanding Cloud Computing and Virtualization 975

Concepts of Cloud Computing 975

Understanding Virtualization 984

Summary 996

Exam Essentials 996

Review Questions 998

Performance-Based Question 1001

Chapter 21 Mobile Operating Systems and Connectivity 1003

Understanding Mobile Operating Systems 1006

Comparing Mobile Operating Systems 1007

Understanding Sensors and Calibration 1022

Using Additional Mobile Operating System Features 1029

Network Connectivity and Email 1036

Understanding Cellular Data Connections 1037

Establishing Wi-Fi Connectivity 1045

Establishing Bluetooth Connectivity 1056

Configuring Email Accounts 1069

Mobile Device Synchronization 1082

Syncing Apple iOS Devices 1083

Syncing Android Devices 1088

Software Installation Requirements 1089

Summary 1092

Exam Essentials 1092

Review Questions 1093

Performance-Based Question 1096

Chapter 22 Troubleshooting Theory, OSs, and Security 1097

Understanding Troubleshooting Theory 1100

Identifying the Problem 1101

Establishing a Theory 1105

Testing Solutions 1106

Establishing a Plan of Action 1107

Verifying Functionality 1109

Documenting the Work 1109

Troubleshooting Operating Systems 1110

Common Symptoms 1110

Operating System Tools 1118

Troubleshooting Security Issues 1126

Common Symptoms 1128

Security Tools 1132

Best Practices for Malware Removal 1136

Troubleshooting Mobile Issues 1137

Troubleshooting Mobile Security Issues 1139

Summary 1142

Exam Essentials 1142

Review Questions 1143

Performance-Based Question 1146

Chapter 23 Understanding Operational Procedures 1147

Understanding Safety Procedures 1150

Identifying Potential Safety Hazards 1151

Creating a Safe Workplace 1161

Understanding Environmental Controls 1170

Managing the Physical Environment 1171

Handling and Disposing of Computer Equipment 1177

Understanding Policies, Licensing, and Privacy 1186

Managing Software Licenses 1186

Managing Sensitive Information 1189

Demonstrating Professionalism 1191

Communicating with Customers 1192

Using Appropriate Behavior 1196

Putting It All in Perspective 1202

Summary 1204

Exam Essentials 1204

Review Questions 1206

Performance-Based Question 1209

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 1211

Chapter 1: Motherboards, Processors, and Memory 1212

Chapter 2: Storage Devices and Power Supplies 1214

Chapter 3: Peripherals and Expansion 1215

Chapter 4: Display Devices 1217

Chapter 5: Custom Configurations 1219

Chapter 6: Network Fundamentals 1221

Chapter 7: Introduction to TCP/IP 1222

Chapter 8: Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks 1224

Chapter 9: Understanding Laptops 1226

Chapter 10: Understanding Mobile Devices 1227

Chapter 11: Installing and Configuring Printers 1229

Chapter 12: Hardware and Network Troubleshooting 1230

Chapter 13: Operating System Basics 1232

Chapter 14: Operating System Administration 1233

Chapter 15: Working with Windows 8/8.1 1234

Chapter 16: Working with Windows 7 1235

Chapter 17: Working with Windows Vista 1236

Chapter 18: Working with Mac OS and Linux 1238

Chapter 19: Security 1239

Chapter 20: Network Services, Cloud Computing, and Virtualization 1240

Chapter 21: Mobile Operating Systems and Connectivity 1241

Chapter 22: Troubleshooting Theory, OSs, and Security 1243

Chapter 23: Understanding Operational Procedures 1244

Appendix B Answers to Performance-Based Questions 1247

Chapter 1: Motherboards, Processors, and Memory 1248

Chapter 2: Storage Devices and Power Supplies 1249

Chapter 3: Peripherals and Expansion 1249

Chapter 4: Display Devices 1249

Chapter 5: Custom Configurations 1252

Chapter 6: Network Fundamentals 1252

Chapter 7: Introduction to TCP/IP 1254

Chapter 8: Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks 1254

Chapter 9: Understanding Laptops 1254

Chapter 10: Understanding Mobile Devices 1256

Chapter 11: Installing and Configuring Printers 1256

Chapter 12: Hardware and Network Troubleshooting 1257

Chapter 13: Operating System Basics 1257

Chapter 14: Operating System Administration 1259

Chapter 15: Working with Windows 8/8.1 1259

Chapter 16: Working with Windows 7 1259

Chapter 17: Working with Windows Vista 1262

Chapter 18: Working with Mac OS and Linux 1264

Chapter 19: Security 1264

Chapter 20: Network Services, Cloud Computing, |and Virtualization 1266

Chapter 21: Mobile Operating Systems and Connectivity 1266

Chapter 22: Troubleshooting Theory, OSs, and Security 1267

Chapter 23: Understanding Operational Procedures 1267

Index 1269

CompTIA Network+ Study Guide: Exam N10-006

Introduction xxix

Assessment Test xli

Chapter 1 Introduction to Networks 1

First Things First: What’s a Network? 2

The Local Area Network 3

Common Network Components 5

Wide Area Network 8

Network Architecture: Peer-to-Peer or Client-Server? 10

Physical Network Topologies 12

Bus Topology 12

Star Topology 13

Ring Topology 14

Mesh Topology 15

Point-to-Point Topology 16

Point-to-Multipoint Topology 17

Hybrid Topology 18

Topology Selection, Backbones, and Segments 19

Selecting the Right Topology 19

The Network Backbone 20

Network Segments 20

Summary 21

Exam Essentials 22

Written Labs 22

Review Questions 23

Chapter 2 The Open Systems Interconnection Specifications 27

Internetworking Models 28

The Layered Approach 29

Advantages of Reference Models 29

The OSI Reference Model 30

The Application Layer 32

The Presentation Layer 33

The Session Layer 33

The Transport Layer 33

The Network Layer 40

The Data Link Layer 43

The Physical Layer 45

Introduction to Encapsulation 46

Modulation Techniques 47

Summary 47

Exam Essentials 48

Written Lab 49

Review Questions 50

Chapter 3 Networking Topologies, Connectors, and Wiring Standards 55

Physical Media 57

Coaxial Cable 58

Twisted-Pair Cable 60

Fiber-Optic Cable 64

Media Converters 69

Serial Cables 71

Cable Properties 73

Transmission Speeds 74

Distance 74

Duplex 74

Noise Immunity (Security, EMI) 74

Frequency 75

Wiring Standards 75

568A vs 568B 76

Straight-Through Cable 78

Crossover Cable 78

Rolled/Rollover Cable 80

T1 Crossover Cable 81

Installing Wiring Distributions 82

Summary 85

Exam Essentials 85

Written Lab 86

Review Questions 87

Chapter 4 The Current Ethernet Specifications 91

Network Basics 93

Ethernet Basics 95

Collision Domain 95

Broadcast Domain 96

CSMA/CD 96

Broadband/Baseband 98

Bit Rates vs Baud Rate 98

Wavelength 98

Sampling -Size 99

Half- and Full-Duplex Ethernet 99

Ethernet at the Data Link Layer 101

Binary to Decimal and Hexadecimal Conversion 102

Ethernet Addressing 105

Ethernet Frames 106

Ethernet at the Physical Layer 108

Ethernet over Other Standards (IEEE 1905.1-2013) 114

Ethernet over Power Line 114

Ethernet over HDMI 116

Summary 117

Exam Essentials 117

Written Lab 117

Review Questions 123

Chapter 5 Networking Devices 127

Common Network Connectivity Devices 129

Network Interface Card 130

Hub 131

Bridge 132

Switch 132

Router 133

Firewall 137

IDS/IPS 138

HIDS 138

Access Point 138

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server 139

Other Specialized Devices 144

Multilayer Switch 144

Load Balancer 145

Domain Name Service Server 145

Proxy Server 150

Encryption Devices 151

Analog Modem 152

Packet Shaper 153

VPN Concentrator 153

Planning and Implementing a Basic SOHO Network Using Network Segmentation 154

Determining Requirements 154

Switches and Bridges at the Data Link Layer 161

Hubs at the Physical Layer 162

Environmental Considerations 163

Summary 164

Exam Essentials 164

Written Lab 165

Review Questions 166

Chapter 6 Introduction to the Internet Protocol 171

Introducing TCP/IP 173

A Brief History of TCP/IP 173

TCP/IP and the DoD Model 174

The Process/Application Layer Protocols 176

The Host-to-Host Layer Protocols 184

The Internet Layer Protocols 189

Data Encapsulation 194

Summary 198

Exam Essentials 198

Written Lab 198

Review Questions 200

Chapter 7 IP Addressing 205

IP Terminology 206

The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme 207

Network Addressing 208

Private IP Addresses (RFC 1918) 212

IPv4 Address Types 214

Layer 2 Broadcasts 214

Layer 3 Broadcasts 215

Unicast Address 215

Multicast Address (Class D) 215

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 216

Why Do We Need IPv6? 216

The Benefits of and Uses for IPv6 217

IPv6 Addressing and Expressions 218

Shortened Expression 219

Address Types 219

Special Addresses 220

Stateless Autoconfiguration (EUI-64) 221

DHCPv6 (Stateful) 223

Migrating to IPv6 223

Summary 225

Exam Essentials 226

Written Lab 227

Written Lab 7.1 227

Written Lab 7.2 227

Written Lab 7.3 228

Review Questions 229

Chapter 8 IP Subnetting, Troubleshooting IP, and Introduction to NAT 233

Subnetting Basics 234

How to Create Subnets 235

Subnet Masks 236

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 237

Subnetting Class C Addresses 239

Subnetting Class B Addresses 249

Troubleshooting IP Addressing 256

Determining IP Address Problems 259

Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT) 264

Types of Network Address Translation 265

NAT Names 266

How NAT Works 267

Summary 268

Exam Essentials 269

Written Labs 269

Review Questions 271

Chapter 9 Introduction to IP Routing 277

Routing Basics 278

The IP Routing Process 281

Testing Your IP Routing Understanding 287

Static and Dynamic Routing 288

Summary 291

Exam Essentials 292

Written Lab 292

Review Questions 293

Chapter 10 Routing Protocols 297

Routing Protocol Basics 299

Administrative Distances 300

Classes of Routing Protocols 302

Distance Vector Routing Protocols 303

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 305

RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) 305

VLSM and Discontiguous Networks 306

EIGRP 309

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 311

Link State Routing Protocols 313

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 314

Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) 316

High Availability 317

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 319

Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol 324

IPv6 Routing Protocols 324

RIPng 325

EIGRPv6 325

OSPFv3 325

Summary 326

Exam Essentials 326

Written Lab 327

Review Questions 328

Chapter 11 Switching and Virtual LANs 333

Networking Before Layer 2 Switching 335

Switching Services 338

Limitations of Layer 2 Switching 339

Bridging vs LAN Switching 340

Three Switch Functions at Layer 2 340

Spanning Tree Protocol 346

Spanning Tree Port States 347

STP Convergence 347

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 802.1w 348

Virtual LANs 349

VLAN Basics 350

Quality of Service 353

VLAN Memberships 354

Static VLANs 354

Dynamic VLANs 355

Identifying VLANs 355

VLAN Identification Methods 357

VLAN Trunking Protocol 359

VTP Modes of Operation 360

Do We Really Need to Put an IP Address on a Switch? 361

Port Security 363

Port Bonding 364

Two Additional Advanced Features of Switches 366

Power over Ethernet (802.3af, 802.3at) 366

Port Mirroring/Spanning (SPAN/RSPAN) 368

Summary 370

Exam Essentials 370

Written Lab 371

Review Questions 372

Chapter 12 Wireless Networking 377

Introduction to Wireless Technology 380

The 802.11 Standards 383

2.4GHz (802.11b) 384

2.4GHz (802.11g) 385

5GHz (802.11a) 386

5GHz (802.11h) 387

2.4GHz/5GHz (802.11n) 388

5GHz (802.11ac) 389

Comparing 802.11 Standards 389

Range Comparisons 390

Wireless Network Components 391

Wireless Access Points 391

Wireless Network Interface Card 392

Wireless Antennas 393

Installing a Wireless Network 395

Ad Hoc Mode: Independent Basic Service Set 395

Infrastructure Mode: Basic Service Set 396

Wireless Controllers 398

Mobile Hot Spots 399

Signal Degradation 400

Other Network Infrastructure Implementations 401

Installing and Configuring WLAN Hardware 402

Site Survey 408

Wireless Security 412

Wireless Threats 412

Open Access 416

Service Set Identifiers, Wired Equivalent Privacy, and Media Access Control Address Authentication 416

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (802.1x) 417

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol 418

Wi-Fi Protected Access or WPA2 Pre-Shared Key 419

Summary 422

Exam Essentials 423

Written Lab 423

Review Questions 425

Chapter 13 Authentication and Access Control 429

Security Filtering 431

Access Control Lists 432

Tunneling 434

Encryption 440

Remote Access 445

Managing User Account and Password Security 447

Managing User Accounts 448

Managing Passwords 450

Single Sign-On 454

Multifactor Authentication 455

User-Authentication Methods 455

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 455

Kerberos 456

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) 458

Web Services 459

Unified Voice Services 460

Network Controllers 460

Network Access Control (NAC) 460

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) 460

MS-CHAP 461

Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) 462

Hashes 462

Network Access Control 462

Summary 464

Exam Essentials 464

Written Lab 465

Review Questions 466

Chapter 14 Network Threats and Mitigation 469

Recognizing Security Threats 473

Denial of Service 474

Distributed DoS (DDoS) 475

Authentication Issues 483

Viruses 484

Zero Day Attacks 487

Insider Threat/Malicious Employee 487

Vulnerabilities 488

Unnecessary Running Services 488

Open Ports 488

Unpatched/Legacy Systems 488

Unencrypted Channels 488

Clear-Text Credentials 488

TEMPEST/RF Emanation 489

Malicious Users 489

Buffer Overflow 490

Wireless Threats 490

Attackers and Their Tools 493

Misconfiguration Issues 497

Social Engineering (Phishing) 498

Understanding Mitigation Techniques 499

Active Detection 500

Passive Detection 500

Proactive Defense 500

Basic Forensic Concepts 501

Policies and Procedures 503

Security Policies 504

Security Training 509

Patches and Upgrades 510

Firmware Updates 512

Driver Updates 512

Upgrading vs Downgrading 513

Anti-malware software 514

Host-based 514

Cloud/Server-based 514

Configuration Backups 515

Updating Antivirus Components 515

Fixing an Infected Computer 518

Summary 518

Exam Essentials 518

Written Lab 519

Review Questions 520

Chapter 15 Physical Security and Risk 525

Using Hardware and Software Security Devices 527

Defining Firewalls 529

Network-Based Firewalls 530

Host-Based Firewalls 530

Firewall Technologies 530

Access Control Lists 531

Port Security 533

Demilitarized Zone 534

Protocol Switching 534

Dynamic Packet Filtering 537

Proxy Services 538

Firewalls at the Application Layer vs

the Network Layer 540

Stateful vs Stateless Network Layer Firewalls 541

Application Layer Firewalls 542

Scanning Services and Other Firewall Features 542

Content Filtering 544

Signature Identification 544

Context Awareness 544

Virtual Wire vs Routed 545

Zones 545

Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems 547

Network-Based IDS 549

Host-Based IDS 551

Vulnerability Scanners 551

VPN Concentrators 552

Understanding Problems Affecting Device Security 553

Physical Security 554

Logical Security Configurations 558

Risk-Related Concepts 560

Summary 566

Exam Essentials 566

Written Lab 567

Review Questions 569

Chapter 16 Wide Area Networks 573

What’s a WAN? 577

Defining WAN Terms 577

The Public Switched Telephone Network 579

WAN Connection Types 580

Bandwidth or Speed 581

T-Series Connections 582

The T1 Connection 583

The T3 Connection 584

Transmission Media 584

Wired Connections 585

Wavelength Division Multiplexing 585

Passive Optical Network 586

Wireless Technologies 586

Broadband Services 588

DSL Technology and XDSL 589

Cable Modem 591

Wireless WAN Technologies 593

Cellular WAN 593

WAN Protocols 595

Integrated Services Digital Network 595

Frame Relay Technology 596

Point-to-Point Protocol 599

Asynchronous Transfer Mode 602

MPLS 603

WAN Troubleshooting 603

Loss of Internet Connectivity 603

Interface Errors/Monitoring 604

Split Horizon 607

DNS Issues 608

Router Configurations 608

Company Security Policy 609

Summary 609

Exam Essentials 609

Written Lab 610

Review Questions 611

Chapter 17 Troubleshooting Tools 615

Protocol Analyzers 616

Throughput Testers 618

Connectivity Software 619

Using Traceroute 620

Using ipconfig and ifconfig 622

Using the ipconfig Utility 622

Using the ifconfig Utility 626

Using the ping Utility 627

Using the Address Resolution Protocol 630

The Windows ARP Table 630

Using the arp Utility 631

Using the nslookup Utility 634

Resolving Names with the Hosts Table 636

Using the Mtr Command (pathping) 637

Using the route Command 638

Using the route Command Options 639

Some Examples of the route Command 641

Using the nbtstat Utility 641

The –a Switch 642

The –A Switch 644

The –c Switch 644

The –n Switch 645

The –r Switch 645

The –R Switch 646

The –S Switch 646

The –s Switch 647

Using the netstat Utility 647

The –a Switch 650

The –e Switch 651

The –r Switch 652

The –s Switch 652

The –p Switch 652

The –n Switch 654

Using the File Transfer Protocol 655

Starting FTP and Logging In to an FTP Server 656

Downloading Files 658

Uploading Files 660

Using the Telnet Utility 660

How to Enable Telnet in Windows 661

Don’t Use Telnet, Use Secure Shell 662

Summary 662

Exam Essentials 663

Written Lab 663

Review Questions 665

Chapter 18 Software and Hardware Tools 671

Understanding Network Scanners 673

Packet Sniffers/Network Monitors 673

Intrusion Detection and Prevention Software 675

Port Scanners 677

Wi-Fi Analyzer 680

Baseline 681

Network Monitoring and Logging 683

Network Monitoring 683

SNMP 684

Syslog 685

SIEM 687

Utilization 690

Identifying Hardware Tools 691

Cable Testers 692

Protocol Analyzer 695

Certifiers 696

Time-Domain Reflectometer 696

Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer 697

Multimeter 698

Toner Probe 698

Butt Set 700

Punch-Down Tool 701

Cable Stripper/Snips 702

Voltage Event Recorder (Power) 702

Environmental Monitors 703

Summary 704

Exam Essentials 704

Written Lab 705

Review Questions 706

Chapter 19 Network Troubleshooting 711

Narrowing Down the Problem 715

Did You Check the Super Simple Stuff? 716

Is Hardware or Software Causing the Problem? 720

Is It a Workstation or a Server Problem? 721

Which Segments of the Network Are Affected? 721

Is It Bad Cabling? 722

Troubleshooting Steps 729

Step 1: Identify the Problem 729

Step 2: Establish a Theory of Probable Cause 733

Step 3: Test the Theory to Determine Cause 737

Step 4: Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Identify Potential Effects 740

Step 5: Implement the Solution or Escalate as Necessary 741

Step 6: Verify Full System Functionality, and If Applicable, Implement Preventative Measures 744

Step 7: Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes 745

Troubleshooting Tips 746

Don’t Overlook the Small Stuff 746

Prioritize Your Problems 746

Check the Software Configuration 747

Don’t Overlook Physical Conditions 747

Don’t Overlook Cable Problems 748

Check for Viruses 748

Summary 749

Exam Essentials 749

Written Lab 750

Review Questions 751

Chapter 20 Management, Monitoring, and Optimization 755

Managing Network Documentation 761

Using SNMP 761

Schematics and Diagrams 762

Network Monitoring 771

Baselines 771

On-Boarding and Off-Boarding of Mobile Devices 771

NAC 772

Policies, Procedures, and Regulations 772

Safety Practices 775

Implementing Network Segmentation 780

Network Optimization 783

Reasons to Optimize Your Network’s Performance 783

How to Optimize Performance 786

Unified Communications 788

Traffic Shaping 788

Load Balancing 789

High Availability 789

Caching Engines 789

Fault Tolerance 790

Archives/Backups 790

Common Address Redundancy Protocol 791

Virtual Networking 791

Locating and Installing Equipment 797

Change Management Procedures 803

Summary 805

Exam Essentials 806

Written Lab 807

Review Questions 808

Appendix A Answers to the Written Labs 813

Chapter 1 814

Chapter 2 814

Chapter 3 815

Chapter 4 815

Chapter 5 818

Chapter 6 818

Chapter 7 819

Written Lab 7.1 819

Written Lab 7.2 820

Written Lab 7.3 820

Chapter 8 820

Chapter 9 821

Chapter 10 821

Chapter 11 822

Chapter 12 822

Chapter 13 823

Chapter 14 823

Chapter 15 824

Chapter 16 824

Chapter 17 825

Chapter 18 825

Chapter 19 825

Chapter 20 826

Appendix B Answers to Review Questions 827

Chapter 1 828

Chapter 2 829

Chapter 3 830

Chapter 4 832

Chapter 5 833

Chapter 6 834

Chapter 7 835

Chapter 8 837

Chapter 9 839

Chapter 10 840

Chapter 11 842

Chapter 12 843

Chapter 13 845

Chapter 14 846

Chapter 15 848

Chapter 16 849

Chapter 17 851

Chapter 18 852

Chapter 19 853

Chapter 20 855

Appendix C Subnetting Class A 857

Subnetting Practice Examples: Class A Addresses 858

Practice Example #1A: 255.255.0.0 (/16) 859

Practice Example #2A: 255.255.240.0 (/20) 859

Practice Example #3A: 255.255.255.192 (/26) 860

Subnetting in Your Head: Class A Addresses 861

Written Lab 1 861

Written Lab 2 862

Answers to Written Lab 1 863

Answers to Written Lab 2 864

Index 865

CompTIA Security+ Study Guide: SY0-401

Foreword xxi

Introduction xxiii

Chapter 1 Measuring and Weighing Risk 1

Risk Assessment 3

Computing Risk Assessment 4

Acting on Your Risk Assessment 9

Risks Associated with Cloud Computing 17

Risks Associated with Virtualization 19

Developing Policies, Standards, and Guidelines 19

Implementing Policies 20

Understanding Control Types and

False Positives/Negatives 26

Risk Management Best Practices 28

Disaster Recovery 36

Tabletop Exercise 39

Summary 39

Exam Essentials 39

Review Questions 41

Chapter 2 Monitoring and Diagnosing Networks 45

Monitoring Networks 46

Network Monitors 46

Understanding Hardening 52

Working with Services 52

Patches 56

User Account Control 57

Filesystems 58

Securing the Network 60

Security Posture 61

Continuous Security Monitoring 61

Setting a Remediation Policy 62

Reporting Security Issues 63

Alarms 63

Alerts 63

Trends 63

Differentiating between Detection Controls and Prevention Controls 64

Summary 65

Exam Essentials 66

Review Questions 67

Chapter 3 Understanding Devices and Infrastructure 71

Mastering TCP/IP 73

OSI Relevance 74

Working with the TCP/IP Suite 74

IPv4 and IPv6 78

Understanding Encapsulation 79

Working with Protocols and Services 80

Designing a Secure Network 87

Demilitarized Zones 87

Subnetting 89

Virtual Local Area Networks 89

Remote Access 92

Network Address Translation 93

Telephony 94

Network Access Control 95

Understanding the Various Network Infrastructure Devices 95

Firewalls 96

Routers 100

Switches 102

Load Balancers 103

Proxies 103

Web Security Gateway 103

VPNs and VPN Concentrators 103

Intrusion Detection Systems 105

Understanding Intrusion Detection Systems 106

IDS vs. IPS 110

Working with a Network-Based IDS 111

Working with a Host-Based IDS 116

Working with NIPSs 117

Protocol Analyzers 118

Spam Filters 118

UTM Security Appliances 119

Summary 122

Exam Essentials 123

Review Questions 124

Chapter 4 Access Control, Authentication, and Authorization 129

Understanding Access Control Basics 131

Identification vs. Authentication 131

Authentication (Single Factor) and Authorization 132

Multifactor Authentication 133

Layered Security and Defense in Depth 133

Network Access Control 134

Tokens 135

Federations 135

Potential Authentication and Access Problems 136

Authentication Issues to Consider 137

Authentication Protocols 139

Account Policy Enforcement 139

Users with Multiple Accounts/Roles 141

Generic Account Prohibition 142

Group-based and User-assigned Privileges 142

Understanding Remote Access Connectivity 142

Using the Point-to-Point Protocol 143

Working with Tunneling Protocols 144

Working with RADIUS 145

TACACS/TACACS+/XTACACS 146

VLAN Management 146

SAML 147

Understanding Authentication Services 147

LDAP 147

Kerberos 148

Single Sign-On Initiatives 149

Understanding Access Control 150

Mandatory Access Control 151

Discretionary Access Control 151

Role-Based Access Control 152

Rule-Based Access Control 152

Implementing Access Controlling Best Practices 152

Least Privileges 153

Separation of Duties 153

Time of Day Restrictions 153

User Access Review 154

Smart Cards 154

Access Control Lists 156

Port Security 157

Working with 802.1X 158

Flood Guards and Loop Protection 158

Preventing Network Bridging 158

Log Analysis 159

Trusted OS 159

Secure Router Configuration 160

Summary 161

Exam Essentials 161

Review Questions 163

Chapter 5 Protecting Wireless Networks 167

Working with Wireless Systems 169

IEEE 802.11x Wireless Protocols 169

WEP/WAP/WPA/WPA2 171

Wireless Transport Layer Security 173

Understanding Wireless Devices 174

Wireless Access Points 175

Extensible Authentication Protocol 181

Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol 182

Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol 182

Wireless Vulnerabilities to Know 183

Wireless Attack Analogy 187

Summary 188

Exam Essentials 189

Review Questions 190

Chapter 6 Securing the Cloud 195

Working with Cloud Computing 196

Software as a Service (SaaS) 197

Platform as a Service (PaaS) 198

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 199

Private Cloud 200

Public Cloud 200

Community Cloud 200

Hybrid Cloud 201

Working with Virtualization 201

Snapshots 203

Patch Compatibility 203

Host Availability/Elasticity 204

Security Control Testing 204

Sandboxing 204

Security and the Cloud 205

Cloud Storage 206

Summary 207

Exam Essentials 207

Review Questions 208

Chapter 7 Host, Data, and Application Security 213

Application Hardening 215

Databases and Technologies 215

Fuzzing 218

Secure Coding 218

Application Configuration Baselining 219

Operating System Patch Management 220

Application Patch Management 220

Host Security 220

Permissions 220

Access Control Lists 221

Antimalware 221

Host Software Baselining 226

Hardening Web Servers 227

Hardening Email Servers 228

Hardening FTP Servers 229

Hardening DNS Servers 230

Hardening DHCP Services 231

Protecting Data Through Fault Tolerance 233

Backups 233

RAID 234

Clustering and Load Balancing 235

Application Security 235

Best Practices for Security 236

Data Loss Prevention 236

Hardware-Based Encryption Devices 237

Summary 238

Exam Essentials 238

Review Questions 239

Chapter 8 Cryptography 243

An Overview of Cryptography 245

Historical Cryptography 245

Modern Cryptography 249

Working with Symmetric Algorithms 249

Working with Asymmetric Algorithms 251

What Cryptography Should You Use? 254

Hashing Algorithms 255

Rainbow Tables and Salt 256

Key Stretching 256

Understanding Quantum Cryptography 257

Cryptanalysis Methods 257

Wi-Fi Encryption 258

Using Cryptographic Systems 258

Confidentiality and Strength 259

Integrity 259

Digital Signatures 261

Authentication 261

Nonrepudiation 262

Key Features 262

Understanding Cryptography Standards and Protocols 263

The Origins of Encryption Standards 263

Public-Key Infrastructure X.509/Public-Key Cryptography Standards 266

X.509 267

SSL and TLS 268

Certificate Management Protocols 270

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions 270

Secure Electronic Transaction 270

Secure Shell 271

Pretty Good Privacy 272

HTTP Secure 274

Secure HTTP 274

IP Security 274

Tunneling Protocols 277

Federal Information Processing Standard 278

Using Public-Key Infrastructure 278

Using a Certificate Authority 279

Working with Registration Authorities and Local Registration Authorities 280

Implementing Certificates 281

Understanding Certificate Revocation 285

Implementing Trust Models 285

Hardware-Based Encryption Devices 290

Data Encryption 290

Summary 291

Exam Essentials 291

Review Questions 293

Chapter 9 Malware, Vulnerabilities, and Threats 297

Understanding Malware 300

Surviving Viruses 310

Symptoms of a Virus Infection 311

How Viruses Work 311

Types of Viruses 312

Managing Spam to Avoid Viruses 316

Antivirus Software 317

Understanding Various Types of Attacks 318

Identifying Denial-of-Service and

Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks 319

Spoofing Attacks 321

Pharming Attacks 322

Phishing, Spear Phishing, and Vishing 323

Xmas Attack 324

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 324

Replay Attacks 325

Smurf Attacks 326

Password Attacks 326

Privilege Escalation 328

Malicious Insider Threats 332

Transitive Access 332

Client-Side Attacks 333

Typo Squatting and URL Hijacking 333

Watering Hole Attack 334

Identifying Types of Application Attacks 334

Cross-Site Scripting and Forgery 334

SQL Injection 335

LDAP Injection 336

XML Injection 337

Directory Traversal/Command Injection 337

Buffer Overflow 338

Integer Overflow 338

Zero-Day Exploits 338

Cookies and Attachments 338

Locally Shared Objects and Flash Cookies 339

Malicious Add-Ons 339

Session Hijacking 340

Header Manipulation 340

Arbitrary Code and Remote Code Execution 341

Tools for Finding Threats 341

Interpreting Assessment Results 341

Tools to Know 342

Risk Calculations and Assessment Types 344

Summary 346

Exam Essentials 346

Review Questions 348

Chapter 10 Social Engineering and Other Foes 353

Understanding Social Engineering 355

Types of Social Engineering Attacks 356

What Motivates an Attack? 361

The Principles Behind Social Engineering 362

Social Engineering Attack Examples 363

Understanding Physical Security 366

Hardware Locks and Security 369

Mantraps 371

Video Surveillance 371

Fencing 372

Access List 373

Proper Lighting 374

Signs 374

Guards 374

Barricades 375

Biometrics 375

Protected Distribution 376

Alarms 376

Motion Detection 376

Environmental Controls 377

HVAC 378

Fire Suppression 378

EMI Shielding 380

Hot and Cold Aisles 382

Environmental Monitoring 383

Temperature and Humidity Controls 383

Control Types 384

A Control Type Analogy 385

Data Policies 385

Destroying a Flash Drive 386

Some Considerations 387

Optical Discs 388

Summary 389

Exam Essentials 389

Review Questions 391

Chapter 11 Security Administration 395

Third-Party Integration 397

Transitioning 397

Ongoing Operations 398

Understanding Security Awareness and Training 399

Communicating with Users to Raise Awareness 399

Providing Education and Training 399

Safety Topics 401

Training Topics 402

Classifying Information 409

Public Information 410

Private Information 411

Information Access Controls 413

Security Concepts 413

Complying with Privacy and Security Regulations 414

The Health Insurance Portability and

Accountability Act 415

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 415

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 416

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act 416

The Computer Security Act of 1987 416

The Cyberspace Electronic Security Act 417

The Cyber Security Enhancement Act 417

The Patriot Act 417

Familiarizing Yourself with International Efforts 418

Mobile Devices 418

BYOD Issues 419

Alternative Methods to Mitigate Security Risks 420

Summary 422

Exam Essentials 422

Review Questions 424

Chapter 12 Disaster Recovery and Incident Response 429

Issues Associated with Business Continuity 431

Types of Storage Mechanisms 432

Crafting a Disaster-Recovery Plan 433

Incident Response Policies 445

Understanding Incident Response 446

Succession Planning 454

Tabletop Exercises 454

Reinforcing Vendor Support 455

Service-Level Agreements 455

Code Escrow Agreements 457

Penetration Testing 458

What Should You Test? 458

Vulnerability Scanning 459

Summary 460

Exam Essentials 461

Review Questions 462

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 467

Chapter 1: Measuring and Weighing Risk 468

Chapter 2: Monitoring and Diagnosing Networks 469

Chapter 3: Understanding Devices and Infrastructure 470

Chapter 4: Access Control, Authentication, and Authorization 471

Chapter 5: Protecting Wireless Networks 473

Chapter 6: Securing the Cloud 474

Chapter 7: Host, Data, and Application Security 475

Chapter 8: Cryptography 476

Chapter 9: Malware, Vulnerabilities, and Threats 477

Chapter 10: Social Engineering and Other Foes 478

Chapter 11: Security Administration 480

Chapter 12: Disaster Recovery and Incident Response 481

Appendix B About the Additional Study Tools 483

Additional Study Tools 484

Sybex Test Engine 484

Electronic Flashcards 484

PDF of Glossary of Terms 484

Adobe Reader 484

System Requirements 485

Using the Study Tools 485

Troubleshooting 485

Customer Care 486

Index 487