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Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach

Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach

Ajoy Kumar Kundu, Mark A. Price, David Riordan

ISBN: 978-1-119-50028-5 February 2019 1024 Pages

 Hardcover

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$125.00

Description

Provides a Comprehensive Introduction to Aircraft Design with an Industrial Approach 

This book introduces readers to aircraft design, placing great emphasis on industrial practice. It includes worked out design examples for several different classes of aircraft, including Learjet 45, Tucano Turboprop Trainer, BAe Hawk and Airbus A320. It considers performance substantiation and compliance to certification requirements and market specifications of take-off/landing field lengths, initial climb/high speed cruise, turning capability and payload/range. Military requirements are discussed, covering some aspects of combat, as is operating cost estimation methodology, safety considerations, environmental issues, flight deck layout, avionics and more general aircraft systems. The book also includes a chapter on electric aircraft design along with a full range of industry standard aircraft sizing analyses.

Split into two parts, Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach spends the first part dealing with the pre-requisite information for configuring aircraft so that readers can make informed decisions when designing vessels. The second part devotes itself to new aircraft concept definition. It also offers additional analyses and design information (e.g., on cost, manufacture, systems, role of CFD, etc.) integral to conceptual design study. The book finishes with an introduction to electric aircraft and futuristic design concepts currently under study.

  • Presents an informative, industrial approach to aircraft design
  • Features design examples for aircraft such as the Learjet 45, Tucano Turboprop Trainer, BAe Hawk, Airbus A320
  • Includes a full range of industry standard aircraft sizing analyses
  • Looks at several performance substantiation and compliance to certification requirements
  • Discusses the military requirements covering some combat aspects
  • Accompanied by a website hosting supporting material

Conceptual Aircraft Design: An Industrial Approach is an excellent resource for those designing and building modern aircraft for commercial, military, and private use.

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Series Preface xxxvii

Preface xxxix

Individual Acknowledgements By Ajoy Kumar Kundu xli

By Mark A. Price xlv

By David Riordan xlvii

List of Symbols and Abbreviations xlix

Road Map of the Book lvii

Part I Prerequisites 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Overview 3

1.2 Brief Historical Background 4

1.3 Aircraft Evolution 10

1.4 Current Aircraft Design Trends for both Civil and Military Aircraft (the 1980s Onwards) 13

1.5 Future Trends 16

1.6 Forces and Drivers 23

1.7 Airworthiness Requirements 23

1.8 Current Aircraft Performance Analyses Levels 25

1.9 Aircraft Classification 26

1.10 Topics of Current Research Interest Related to Aircraft Design (Supersonic/Subsonic) 27

1.11 Cost Implications 30

1.12 The Classroom Learning Process 30

1.13 Units and Dimensions 34

1.14 Use of Semi-Empirical Relations and Datasheets 34

1.15 The Atmosphere 36

References 45

2 Aircraft Familiarity, Aircraft Design Process, Market Study 46

2.1 Overview 46

2.2 Introduction 47

2.3 Aircraft Familiarisation 48

2.4 Typical Aircraft Design Process 53

2.5 Market Survey – Project Identification 53

2.6 Four Phases of Aircraft Design 57

2.7 Typical Task Breakdown in Each Phase 62

2.8 Aircraft Specifications forThree Civil Aircraft Case Studies 67

2.9 MilitaryMarket – Some TypicalMilitary Aircraft Design Specifications 70

2.10 Airworthiness Requirements 73

2.11 Coursework Procedures – Market Survey 75

References 76

3 Aerodynamic Fundamentals, Definitions and Aerofoils 78

3.1 Overview 78

3.2 Introduction 79

3.3 Airflow Behaviour – Laminar and Turbulent 80

3.4 Flow Past an Aerofoil 84

3.5 Generation of Lift 85

3.6 Aircraft Motion, Forces and Moments 86

3.7 Definitions of Aerodynamic Parameters 91

3.8 Aerofoils 91

3.9 Reynolds Number and Surface Condition Effects on Aerofoils – Using NACA Aerofoil Test Data 101

3.10 Centre of Pressure and Aerodynamic Centre 105

3.11 Types of Stall 109

3.12 High-Lift Devices 110

3.13 Flow Regimes 112

3.14 Summary 117

3.15 Aerofoil Design and Manufacture 123

3.16 Aircraft Centre of Gravity, Centre of Pressure and Neutral Point 125

References 125

4 Wings 127

4.1 Overview 127

4.2 Introduction 128

4.3 GenericWing Planform Shapes 128

4.4 Wing Position Relative to Fuselage 132

4.5 Structural Considerations 136

4.6 Wing Parameter Definitions 137

4.7 Spanwise Variation of Aerofoil t/c and Incidence 139

4.8 Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) 140

4.9 Wing Aerodynamics 145

4.10 Wing Load 153

4.11 Compressibility Effect:Wing Sweep 160

4.12 TransonicWings 167

4.13 SupersonicWings 167

4.14 Additional Vortex Lift – LE Suction 170

4.15 High-Lift Devices on theWing – Flaps and Slats 170

4.16 Additional Surfaces on theWing 175

4.17 The Square-Cube Law 176

4.18 Influence ofWing Area and Span on Aerodynamics 177

4.19 Summary ofWing Design 179

References 183

5 Bodies – Fuselages, Nacelle Pods, Intakes and the Associated Systems 184

5.1 Overview 184

5.2 Introduction 185

CIVIL AIRCRAFT 188

5.3 Fuselage Geometry – Civil Aircraft 188

5.4 Fuselage Closures – Civil Aircraft 189

5.5 Fuselage Fineness Ratio (FR) 192

5.6 Fuselage Cross-Sectional Geometry – Civil Aircraft 194

5.7 Fuselage Abreast Seating – Civil Aircraft 195

5.8 Cabin Seat Layout 197

5.9 Fuselage Layout 205

5.10 Fuselage Aerodynamic Considerations 206

5.11 Fuselage Pitching Moment 208

5.12 Nacelle Pod – Civil Aircraft 213

5.13 Exhaust Nozzles – Civil Aircraft 220

MILITARY AIRCRAFT 222

5.14 Fuselage Geometry – Military Aircraft 222

5.15 Pilot Cockpit/Flight Deck – Military Aircraft 224

5.16 Engine Installation – Military Aircraft 224

References 228

6 Empennage and Other Planar Surfaces 229

6.1 Overview 229

6.2 Introduction 230

6.3 Terminologies and Definitions of Empennage 231

6.4 Empennage Mount and Types 232

6.5 Different Kinds of Empennage Design 235

6.6 Empennage Tail Arm 237

6.7 Empennage Aerodynamics 240

6.8 Aircraft Control System 256

6.9 Aircraft Control Surfaces and Trim Tabs 259

6.10 Empennage Design 262

6.11 Other Planar Surfaces 264

References 267

7 Aircraft Statistics, Configuration Choices and Layout 268

7.1 Overview 268

7.2 Introduction 269

CIVIL AIRCRAFT 270

7.3 Civil Aircraft Mission (Payload Range) 270

7.4 Civil Subsonic Jet Aircraft Statistics (Sizing Parameters) 271

7.5 Internal Arrangements of Fuselage – Civil Aircraft 282

7.6 Some Interesting Aircraft Configurations – Civil Aircraft 288

7.7 Summary of Civil Aircraft Design Choices 291

MILITARY AIRCRAFT 292

7.8 Military Aircraft: Detailed Classification, Evolutionary Pattern and Mission Profile 292

7.9 Military Aircraft Mission 299

7.10 Military Aircraft Statistics (Regression Analysis) 299

7.11 Military Aircraft Component Geometries 304

7.12 Miscellaneous Comments 310

7.13 Summary of Military Aircraft Design Choices 310

References 311

Part II Aircraft Design 313

8 Configuring Aircraft – Concept Definition 315

8.1 Overview 315

8.2 Introduction 317

CIVIL AIRCRAFT 321

8.3 Prerequisites to Initiate Conceptual Design of Civil Aircraft 321

8.4 Fuselage Design 325

8.5 Wing Design 327

8.6 Empennage Design 330

8.7 Nacelle and Pylon Design 334

8.8 Undercarriage 337

8.9 Worked-Out Example: Configuring a Bizjet Class Aircraft 337

MILITARY AIRCRAFT 350

8.10 Prerequisite to Initiate Military (Combat/Trainer) Aircraft Design 350

8.11 Fuselage Design (Military – Combat/Trainer Aircraft) 354

8.12 Wing Design (Military – Combat/Trainer Aircraft) 356

8.13 Empennage Design (Military – Combat/Trainer Aircraft) 358

8.14 Engine/Intake/Nozzle (Military – Combat/Trainer Aircraft) 360

8.15 Undercarriage (Military – Combat/Trainer Aircraft) 361

8.16 Worked-Out Example – Configuring Military AJT Class Aircraft 361

8.17 Turboprop Trainer Aircraft (TPT) 374

References 383

9 Undercarriage 384

9.1 Overview 384

9.2 Introduction 385

9.3 Types of Undercarriage 387

9.4 Undercarriage Description 388

9.5 Undercarriage Nomenclature and Definitions 391

9.6 Undercarriage Retraction and Stowage 393

9.7 Undercarriage Design Drivers and Considerations 394

9.8 Tyre Friction with the Ground: Rolling and Braking Friction Coefficient 396

9.9 Load on Wheels and Shock Absorbers 397

9.10 Energy Absorbed 400

9.11 Equivalent Single Wheel Load (ESWL) 402

9.12 Runway Pavement 403

9.13 Airfield/Runway Strength and Aircraft Operating Compatibility 404

9.14 Wheels and Tyres 407

9.15 Tyre Nomenclature, Classification, Loading and Selection 411

9.16 Configuring Undercarriage Layout and Positioning 414

9.17 Worked-Out Examples 417

9.18 Discussion and Miscellaneous Considerations 426

References 427

10 Aircraft Weight and Centre of Gravity Estimation 428

10.1 Overview 428

10.2 Introduction 429

10.3 The Weight Drivers 431

10.4 Aircraft Mass (Weight) Breakdown 432

10.5 Aircraft CG and Neutral Point Positions 433

10.6 Aircraft Component Groups 436

10.7 Aircraft Component Mass Estimation 438

CIVIL AIRCRAFT 443

10.8 Mass Fraction Method – Civil Aircraft 443

10.9 Graphical Method – Civil Aircraft 445

10.10 Semi-Empirical Equation Method (Statistical) 446

10.11 Centre of Gravity Determination 455

10.12 Worked-Out Example – Bizjet Aircraft 456

MILITARY AIRCRAFT 461

10.13 Mass Fraction Method – Military Aircraft 461

10.14 Graphical Method to Predict Aircraft ComponentWeight – Military Aircraft 463

10.15 Semi-Empirical Equations Method (Statistical) – Military Aircraft 463

10.16 CG Determination – Military Aircraft 468

10.17 Classroom Example of Military AJT/CAS Aircraft Mass Estimation 468

10.18 AJT Mass Estimation and CG Location 471

10.19 Classroom Example of a Turboprop Trainer (TPT) Aircraft and COIN Variant Weight Estimation 472

10.20 Classroom Worked-Out TPT Mass Estimation and CG Location 476

10.21 Summary of Concept Definition 478

References 478

11 Aircraft Drag 479

11.1 Overview 479

11.2 Introduction 480

11.3 Parasite Drag Definition 481

11.4 Aircraft Drag Breakdown (Subsonic) 482

11.4.1 Discussion 483

11.5 Understanding Drag Polar 483

11.6 Aircraft Drag Formulation 487

11.7 Aircraft Drag Estimation Methodology (Subsonic) 488

11.8 Minimum Parasite Drag Estimation Methodology 489

11.9 Semi-Empirical Relations to Estimate Aircraft-Component Parasite Drag 491

11.10 Notes on Excrescence Drag Resulting from Surface Imperfections 500

11.11 Minimum Parasite Drag 501

11.12 ΔCDp Estimation 501

11.13 Subsonic Wave Drag 502

11.14 Total Aircraft Drag 503

11.15 Low-Speed Aircraft Drag at Takeoff and Landing 503

11.16 Propeller-Driven Aircraft Drag 508

11.17 Military Aircraft Drag 509

11.18 Supersonic Drag 509

11.19 Coursework Example – Civil Bizjet Aircraft 511

11.20 Classroom Example – Subsonic Military Aircraft (Advanced Jet Trainer – AJT) 519

11.21 Classroom Example – Turboprop Trainer (TPT) 522

11.22 Classroom Example – Supersonic Military Aircraft 527

11.23 Drag Comparison 537

11.24 Some Concluding Remarks 538

References 538

12 Aircraft Power Plant and Integration 540

12.1 Overview 540

12.2 Background 540

12.3 Definitions 543

12.4 Introduction – Air-Breathing Aircraft Engine Types 546

12.5 Simplified Representation of a Gas Turbine (Brayton/Joule) Cycle 551

12.6 Formulation/Theory – Isentropic Case (Trend Analysis) 551

12.7 Engine Integration to Aircraft – Installation Effects 556

12.8 Intake/Nozzle Design 560

12.9 Exhaust Nozzle and Thrust Reverser (TR) 563

12.10 Propeller 566

12.11 Propeller Theory 568

12.12 Propeller Performance – Use of Charts, Practical Engineering Applications 572

References 575

13 Aircraft Power Plant Performance 577

13.1 Overview 577

13.2 Introduction 578

13.3 Uninstalled Turbofan Engine Performance Data – Civil Aircraft 581

13.4 Installed Engine Performance Data of Matched Engines to Coursework Aircraft 590

13.5 Installed Turboprop Performance Data 594

13.6 Piston Engine 598

13.7 Engine Performance Grid 602

13.8 Some Turbofan Data (OPR = Overall Pressure Ratio) 606

References 607

14 Aircraft Sizing, Engine Matching and Variant Derivatives 608

14.1 Overview 608

14.2 Introduction 609

14.3 Theory 610

14.4 Coursework Exercise – Civil Aircraft Design (Bizjet) 615

14.5 Sizing Analysis – Civil Aircraft (Bizjet) 617

14.6 Coursework Exercise – Military Aircraft (AJT) 619

14.7 Sizing Analysis – Military Aircraft (AJT) 623

14.8 Aircraft Sizing Studies and Sensitivity Analyses 625

14.9 Discussion 626

References 630

15 Aircraft Performance 631

15.1 Overview 631

15.2 Introduction 632

15.3 Takeoff Performance 635

15.4 Landing Performance 642

15.5 Climb Performance 644

15.6 Descent Performance 648

15.7 Checking of the InitialMaximum Cruise Speed Capability 649

15.8 Payload-Range Capability – Derivation of Range Equations 649

15.9 In Horizontal Plane (Yaw Plane) – Sustained Coordinated Turn 651

15.10 Aircraft Performance Substantiation –Worked-Out Classroom Examples – Bizjet 653

15.11 Aircraft Performance Substantiation – Military AJT 668

15.12 Propeller-Driven Aircraft – TPT (Parabolic Drag Polar) 677

15.13 Summarised Discussion of the Design 678

References 681

16 Aircraft Cost Considerations 682

16.1 Overview 682

16.2 Introduction 683

16.3 Aircraft Cost and Operational Cost 686

16.4 Rapid Cost Modelling 690

16.5 Aircraft Direct Operating Cost (DOC) 701

16.6 Aircraft Performance Management 707

References 710

Part III Further Design Considerations 713

17 Aircraft Load 715

17.1 Overview 715

17.2 Introduction 715

17.3 Flight Manoeuvres 718

17.4 Aircraft Loads 718

17.5 Theory and Definitions 719

17.6 Limits – Load and Speeds 720

17.7 V-n Diagram 721

17.8 Gust Envelope 726

References 729

18 Stability Considerations Affecting Aircraft Design 730

18.1 Overview 730

18.2 Introduction 730

18.3 Static and Dynamic Stability 731

18.4 Theory 736

18.5 Current Statistical Trends for Horizontal and Vertical Tail Coefficients 741

18.6 Stick Force – Aircraft Control Surfaces and Trim Tabs 741

18.7 Inherent Aircraft Motions as Characteristics of Design 743

18.8 Design Considerations for Stability – Civil Aircraft 747

18.9 Military Aircraft – Non-Linear Effects 750

18.10 Active Control Technology (ACT) – Fly-by-Wire (FBW) 752

18.11 Summary of Design Considerations for Stability 754

References 755

19 Materials and Structures 756

19.1 Overview 756

19.2 Introduction 756

19.3 Function of Structure – Loading 759

19.4 Basic Definitions – Structures 761

19.5 From Structure to Material 762

19.6 Basic Definitions – Materials 763

19.7 Material Properties 765

19.8 Considerations with Respect to Design 766

19.9 Structural Configuration 776

19.10 Materials – General Considerations 784

19.11 Metals 786

19.12 Wood and Fabric 788

19.13 Composite Materials 788

19.14 Structural Configurations 793

19.15 Rules of Thumb and Concept Checks 800

19.16 Finite Element Analysis (FEA)/Finite Element Method (FEM) 804

References 805

20 Aircraft Manufacturing Considerations 806

20.1 Overview 806

20.2 Introduction 808

20.3 Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFM/A) 808

20.4 Manufacturing Practices 809

20.5 Six-Sigma Concept 811

20.6 Tolerance Relaxation at the Wetted Surface 812

20.7 Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) 814

20.8 The Design Considerations 814

20.9 ‘Design for Customer’ (A Figure of Merit) 817

20.10 Digital Manufacturing Process Management 821

References 824

21 Miscellaneous Design Considerations 825

21.1 Overview 825

21.2 Introduction 826

21.3 History of FAA – the Role of Regulation 827

21.4 Flight Test 831

21.5 Contribution by the Ground Effect on Takeoff 832

21.6 Aircraft Environmental Issues 833

21.7 Flying in Adverse Environments 838

21.8 Military Aircraft Flying Hazards 842

21.9 End-of-Life Disposal 842

21.10 Extended Range Twin-Engine Operation (ETOP) 843

21.11 Flight and Human Physiology 843

21.12 Some Emerging Scenarios 845

References 846

22 Aircraft Systems 847

22.1 Overview 847

22.2 Introduction 848

22.3 Environmental Issues (Noise and Engine Emission) 849

22.4 Safety Issues 851

22.5 Aircraft Flight Deck (Cockpit) Layout 853

22.6 Aircraft Systems 862

22.7 Flying in Adverse Environments and Passenger Utility 874

22.8 Military Aircraft Survivability 878

References 885

23 Computational Fluid Dynamics 886

23.1 Overview 886

23.2 Introduction 887

23.3 Current Status 888

23.4 Approach Road to CFD Analyses 889

23.5 Some Case Studies 892

23.6 Hierarchy of CFD Simulation Methods 893

23.7 Summary of Discussions 896

References 897

24 Electric Aircraft 899

24.1 Overview 899

24.2 Introduction 900

24.3 Energy Storage 902

24.4 Prime Mover – Motors 905

24.5 Electric Powered Aircraft Power Train 906

24.6 Hybrid Electric Aircraft (HEA) 908

24.7 Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) 910

24.8 Electric Aircraft Related Theory/Analyses 911

24.9 Electric Powered Aircraft Sizing 914

24.10 Discussion 916

24.11 Worked-Out Example 918

References 919

Appendix A Conversions and Important Equations 920

Appendix B International Standard Atmosphere Table Data from Hydrostatic Equations 923

Appendix C Fundamental Equations (See Table of Contents for Symbols and Nomenclature.) 926

Appendix D Some Case Studies – Aircraft Data 932

Appendix E Aerofoil Data 948

Appendix F Wheels and Tyres 959

Index 965