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Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Suvendu Bhattacharya (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-40630-4

Sep 2014

744 pages

$206.99

Description

Food processing technologies are an essential link in the food chain. These technologies are many and varied, changing in popularity with changing consumption patterns and product popularity. Newer process technologies are also being evolved to provide the added advantages.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies fuses the practical (application, machinery), theoretical (model, equation) and cutting-edge (recent trends), making it ideal for industrial, academic and reference use. It consists of two sections, one covering conventional or well-established existing processes and the other covering emerging or novel process technologies that are expected to be employed in the near future for the processing of foods in the commercial sector. All are examined in great detail, considering their current and future applications with added examples and the very latest data.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies is a comprehensive treatment of the current state of knowledge on food processing technology. In its extensive coverage, and the selection of reputed research scientists who have contributed to each topic, this book will be a definitive text in this field for students, food professionals and researchers.

List of Contributors xix

Foreword xxv

Section 1 Conventional Food Processing 1

1 Drying and Dehydration Processes in Food Preservation and Processing 3
Panagiotis A. Michailidis and Magdalini K. Krokida

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Drying kinetics 4

1.3 Different drying processes 4

1.4 Conclusions 28

Abbreviations 29

References 29

2 Size Reduction Practices in Food Processing 33
A. Chakkaravarthi and Suvendu Bhattacharya

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Applications of the grinding process 35

2.3 Grinding energy laws 38

2.4 Machinery requirement 39

2.5 Mechanism of size reduction 44

2.6 Size reduction of liquid 46

2.7 Conclusions 48

References 48

3 Dough Processing: Sheeting, Shaping, Flattening and Rolling 51
B. Patel and O. H. Campanella

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Dough sheeting 52

3.3 Shaping 68

References 71

4 Extrusion Processing of Foods 75
Rupesh Kumar Dubey and Suvendu Bhattacharya

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Application of extrusion technology 76

4.3 Description of an extruder 77

4.4 Selected extrusion technology 81

4.5 Post-extrusion treatment 87

4.6 Quality characteristics of product 89

4.7 Equations related to food extrusion 90

4.8 Present status 92

References 93

5 The Process of Gelling 99
Shanthilal J. and Suvendu Bhattacharya

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Classification of gels 100

5.3 Gelling process 103

5.4 Mechanism of gel formation 104

5.5 Methods for characterization of gels 105

5.6 Mathematical models 109

5.7 Conclusions 111

References 111

6 Thermal Food Preservation Techniques (Pasteurization, Sterilization, Canning and Blanching) 115
Arthur A. Teixeira

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Pasteurization and sterilization 116

6.3 Aseptic processing 119

6.4 Canning 121

6.5 Blanching 127

References 128

7 Extraction Processes 129
K. Udaya Sankar

7.1 Introduction 129

7.2 Conventional extraction 129

7.3 Advanced extraction processes 130

References 151

8 Baking 159
R. Sai Manohar

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Bread 160

8.3 Biscuit 173

8.4 Cake 182

8.5 Machinery 189

8.6 Conclusions 192

References 193

9 Frying of Foods 197
Franco Pedreschi and Javier Enrione

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Frying as a unit operation 199

9.3 Properties of fried products 202

9.4 Machinery of frying 208

9.5 Stability of fried products 211

9.6 Conclusions 215

References 216

10 Roasting and Toasting Operations in Food: Process Engineering and Applications 221
Sila Bhattacharya

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Applications of the process in specific foods 222

10.3 Process modelling 232

10.4 Machinery and methods 235

10.5 Changes during roasting/toasting 239

10.6 Recent researches 241

10.7 Possible future applications 242

10.8 Conclusions 242

Symbols 243

References 243

11 Micronization and Encapsulation: Application of Supercritical Fluids in Water Removal 249
M. Thereza M. S. Gomes, Diego T. Santos and M. Angela A. Meireles

11.1 Introduction 249

11.2 Supercritical fluid 251

11.3 Developmental stages 251

11.4 Process description and influence of process parameters 252

11.5 Conclusions and future perspectives 262

Abbreviations 263

References 263

12 Flavouring and Coating Technologies for Preservation and Processing of Foods 267
Miguel A. Cerqueira, Maria José Costa, Melissa C. Rivera, Óscar L. Ramos and António A. Vicente

12.1 Introduction 267

12.2 Flavouring of foods 269

12.3 Edible coatings for food applications 280

12.4 Food flavouring by coating 287

12.5 Regulatory aspects and future trends 293

References 296

13 Instantization and Agglomeration of Foods 313
Siddeswari Sindawal and Suvendu Bhattacharya

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Applications of the technology/process 314

13.3 Process technology 324

13.4 Scientific principles 330

13.5 Conclusions and future possibilities 331

References 332

14 Fortification and Impregnation Practices in Food Processing 337
Beate Petersen

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 Food modification by vacuum impregnation 338

14.3 Food modification by osmotic dehydration 339

14.4 Influence parameters on food modification by VI and OD 340

14.5 Traditional and future applications 348

14.6 Combination of OD and VI with other processes 350

14.7 Conclusions 352

Abbreviations 353

References 353

15 Refrigeration in Food Preservation and Processing 357
Q. Tuan Pham

15.1 Introduction 357

15.2 Changes in foods during refrigeration 359

15.3 Chilling and freezing time prediction 362

15.4 Refrigeration equipment 370

15.5 Refrigerated storage and transport 375

15.6 Recent developments in food refrigeration 381

15.7 Conclusions 383

References 384

16 Biotransformation in Food Processing 387
Lalitagauri Ray and Debabrata Bera

16.1 Introduction 387

16.2 Production of gluconic acid 389

16.3 Ascorbic acid 392

16.4 Lactose hydrolysis by -galactosidase 393

16.5 Invert sugar 395

16.6 Production of oligosaccharides 397

16.7 Glucose isomerization 397

16.8 Production of flavour and fragrance 399

16.9 Artificial sweetener 401

16.10 Conclusions 403

References 404

Section 2 Advanced Processes 411

17 Ultraviolet in Food Preservation and Processing 413
Albert Ibarz, Alfonso Garvín and Víctor Falguera

17.1 Introduction 413

17.2 Microbial disinfection 417

17.3 Mycotoxin elimination 423

17.4 Inactivation of enzymes in juices 425

17.5 Improvement of polymer films 426

17.6 Conclusions 427

References 427

18 Application of Microwave Technology in Food Preservation and Processing 437
Birgitta Wäppling Raaholt, Emma Holtz, Sven Isaksson and Lilia Ahrné

18.1 Introduction 437

18.2 Background 437

18.3 Principles 439

18.4 Applications of microwave in food preservation and processing 451

18.5 Present status and future possibilities 461

18.6 Conclusions 464

References 465

19 Infrared in Food Preservation and Processing 471
Ipsita Das and S.K. Das

19.1 Introduction 471

19.2 Theory of infrared drying 472

19.3 Application of infrared energy in food industry 477

19.4 Conclusions 492

References 495

20 Application of Radiowave Frequency in Food Processing 501
Francesco Marra, Tesfaye Faye Bedane, Rahmi Uyar, Ferruh Erdogdu and James G. Lyng

20.1 Introduction 501

20.2 Principles of RF processing 502

20.3 Use of RF heating in food processing 503

20.4 Factors influencing RF heating processes 507

20.5 Computer simulation of RF heating in food processing 508

20.6 Conclusions 509

References 509

21 Application of Ultrasonics in Food Preservation and Processing 515
Anet Rězek Jambrak and Zoran Herceg

21.1 Introduction 515

21.2 Ultrasound mechanism 516

21.3 Application of ultrasound in food processing 522

21.4 Conclusions 531

References 532

22 Membrane Processing 537
Alfredo Cassano, Carmela Conidi and Enrico Drioli

22.1 Introduction 537

22.2 Terminology and general considerations 538

22.3 Pressure-driven membrane operations 540

22.4 Electrodialysis 544

22.5 Membrane contactors 546

22.6 Membrane bioreactors 552

22.7 Pervaporation 555

22.8 Conclusions 560

Abbreviations 560

References 561

23 Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology in Food 567
Shanthilal J. and Suvendu Bhattacharya

23.1 Introduction 567

23.2 Advantages of nanotechnology 569

23.3 Applications in food preservation and processing 570

23.4 Process technology 582

23.5 Regulatory and safety issues 585

23.6 Conclusions 588

References 588

24 High Pressure Processing: Current Status 595
Mukund V. Karwe, Jose Maldonado and Swetha Mahadevan

24.1 Introduction 595

24.2 Heat transfer during high pressure processing 596

24.3 Mass transfer during high pressure processing 601

24.4 Studies on nonuniformity of pressure in solid foods 604

24.5 Effect of high pressure on bioactive compounds in foods 606

24.6 Mechanisms of microbial inactivation during high pressure processing 608

References 610

25 Ozone Processing 617
Fátima A. Miller, Teresa R.S. Brandão and Cristina L.M. Silva

25.1 Introduction 617

25.2 Ozone properties 619

25.3 Ozone generation 620

25.4 Antimicrobial action 622

25.5 Applications of ozone 627

25.6 Remarks on health and safety concerns 637

References 637

26 Application of Pulsed Electric Fields in Food 645
Claudia Siemer, Kemal Aganovic, Stefan Toepfl and Volker Heinz

26.1 Introduction 645

26.2 Principle of action 646

26.3 Application 648

26.4 Equipment design 662

26.5 Outlook 664

References 665

27 Ohmic Heating 673
Cuiren Chen

27.1 Introduction 673

27.2 Applications of OH system 675

27.3 OH heating process and equipment 676

27.4 Modelling of the OH process 679

27.5 Critical factors of OH processing 683

27.6 Sensitivity analysis of the continuous OH system 685

27.7 Conclusions 686

References 688

28 Intelligent Identification System for Poultry Portion Sorting 691
Adnan Khashman

28.1 Introduction 691

28.2 Automation in poultry processing 692

28.3 Intelligent poultry portion identification 693

28.4 Future possible applications 700

28.5 Conclusions 701

References 702

Index 705