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Conventional and Alternative Power Generation: Thermodynamics, Mitigation and Sustainability

Conventional and Alternative Power Generation: Thermodynamics, Mitigation and Sustainability

Neil Packer, Tarik Al-Shemmeri

ISBN: 978-1-119-47940-6

Jul 2018

280 pages

$104.99

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Description

A much-needed, up-to-date guide on conventional and alternative power generation 

This book goes beyond the traditional methods of power generation. It introduces the many recent innovations on the production of electricity and the way they play a major role in combating global warming and improving the efficiency of generation. It contains a strong analytical approach to underpin the theory of power plants—for those using conventional fuels, as well as those using renewable fuels—and looks at the problems from a unique environmental engineering perspective. The book also includes numerous worked examples and case studies to demonstrate the working principles of these systems.

Conventional and Alternative Power Generation: Thermodynamics, Mitigation and Sustainability is divided into 8 chapters that comprehensively cover: thermodynamic systems; vapor power cycles, gas power cycles, combustion; control of particulates; carbon capture and storage; air pollution dispersal; and renewable energy and power plants.

  • Features an abundance of worked examples and tutorials
  • Examines the problems of generating power from an environmental engineering perspective
  • Includes all of the latest information, technology, theories, and principles on power generation

Conventional and Alternative Power Generation: Thermodynamics, Mitigation and Sustainability is an ideal text for courses on mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering.

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Preface xi

Structure of the Book xiii

Notation xvii

1 Thermodynamic Systems 1

1.1 Overview 1

Learning Outcomes 1

1.2 Thermodynamic System Definitions 1

1.3 Thermodynamic Properties 1

1.4 Thermodynamic Processes 3

1.5 Formation of Steam and the State Diagrams 4

1.5.1 Property Tables and Charts for Vapours 6

1.6 Ideal Gas Behaviour in Closed and Open Systems and Processes 7

1.7 First Law ofThermodynamics 9

1.7.1 First Law ofThermodynamics Applied to Open Systems 10

1.7.2 First Law ofThermodynamics Applied to Closed Systems 10

1.8 Worked Examples 11

1.9 Tutorial Problems 17

2 Vapour Power Cycles 19

2.1 Overview 19

Learning Outcomes 19

2.2 Steam Power Plants 19

2.3 Vapour Power Cycles 20

2.3.1 The Carnot Cycle 21

2.3.2 The Simple Rankine Cycle 22

2.3.3 The Rankine Superheat Cycle 22

2.3.4 The Rankine Reheat Cycle 23

2.3.4.1 Analysis of the Rankine Reheat Cycle 24

2.3.5 Real Steam Processes 25

2.3.6 Regenerative Cycles 25

2.3.6.1 Single Feed Heater 26

2.3.6.2 Multiple Feed Heaters 27

2.3.7 Organic Rankine Cycle (ORc) 29

2.3.7.1 Choice of theWorking Fluid for ORc 29

2.4 Combined Heat and Power 30

2.4.1 Scenario One: Power Only 30

2.4.2 Scenario Two: Heat Only 31

2.4.3 ScenarioThree: Heat and Power 32

2.4.4 Cogeneration, Trigeneration and Quad Generation 33

2.5 Steam Generation Hardware 33

2.5.1 Steam Boiler Components 34

2.5.2 Types of Boiler 35

2.5.3 Fuel Preparation System 35

2.5.4 Methods of Superheat Control 36

2.5.5 Performance of Steam Boilers 36

2.5.5.1 Boiler Efficiency 36

2.5.5.2 Boiler Rating 37

2.5.5.3 Equivalent Evaporation 38

2.5.6 Steam Condensers 38

2.5.6.1 Condenser Calculations 38

2.5.7 Cooling Towers 39

2.5.8 Power-station Pumps 39

2.5.8.1 Pump Applications 39

2.5.9 Steam Turbines 41

2.6 Worked Examples 41

2.7 Tutorial Problems 54

3 GasPowerCycles 57

3.1 Overview 57

Learning Outcomes 57

3.2 Introduction to Gas Turbines 57

3.3 Gas Turbine Cycle 57

3.3.1 Irreversibilities in Gas Turbine Processes 58

3.3.2 The Compressor Unit 58

3.3.3 The Combustion Chamber 59

3.3.4 The Turbine Unit 60

3.3.5 Overall Performance of Gas Turbine Plants 60

3.4 Modifications to the Simple Gas Turbine Cycle 61

3.4.1 Heat Exchanger 61

3.4.2 Intercooling 61

3.4.3 Reheating 62

3.4.4 Compound System 63

3.4.5 Combined Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Cycle 65

3.5 Gas Engines 68

3.5.1 Internal Combustion Engines 68

3.5.2 The Otto Cycle 68

3.5.2.1 Analysis of the Otto Cycle 69

3.5.3 The Diesel Cycle 69

3.5.3.1 Analysis of the Diesel Cycle 70

3.5.4 The Dual Combustion Cycle 71

3.5.4.1 Analysis of the Dual Cycle 72

3.5.5 Diesel Engine Power Plants 72

3.5.6 External Combustion Engines –The Stirling Engine 72

3.6 Worked Examples 74

3.7 Tutorial Problems 84

4 Combustion 87

4.1 Overview 87

Learning Outcomes 87

4.2 Mass and Matter 87

4.2.1 Chemical Quantities 88

4.2.2 Chemical Reactions 88

4.2.3 Physical Quantities 88

4.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 89

4.3.1 Combustion Equations 90

4.4 Combustion Terminology 90

4.4.1 Oxidizer Provision 90

4.4.2 Combustion Product Analyses 91

4.4.3 Fuel mixtures 92

4.5 Energy Changes During Combustion 92

4.6 First Law ofThermodynamics Applied to Combustion 93

4.6.1 Steady-flow Systems (SFEE) [Applicable to Boilers, Furnaces] 93

4.6.2 Closed Systems (NFEE) [Applicable to Engines] 93

4.6.3 Flame Temperature 94

4.7 Oxidation of Nitrogen and Sulphur 94

4.7.1 Nitrogen and Sulphur 95

4.7.2 Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 95

4.7.3 NOx Control 97

4.7.3.1 Modify the Combustion Process 97

4.7.3.2 Post-flame Treatment 97

4.7.4 Formation of Sulphur Oxides (SOx) 98

4.7.5 SOx Control 98

4.7.5.1 Flue Gas Sulphur Compounds from Fossil-fuel Consumption 98

4.7.5.2 Sulphur Compounds from Petroleum and Natural Gas Streams 100

4.7.6 Acid Rain 100

4.8 Worked Examples 101

4.9 Tutorial Problems 111

5 Control of Particulates 115

5.1 Overview 115

Learning Outcomes 115

5.2 Some Particle Dynamics 115

5.2.1 Nature of Particulates 115

5.2.2 Stokes’s Law and Terminal Velocity 116

5.3 Principles of Collection 119

5.3.1 Collection Surfaces 119

5.3.2 Collection Devices 119

5.3.3 Fractional Collection Efficiency 121

5.4 Control Technologies 121

5.4.1 Gravity Settlers 121

5.4.1.1 Model 1: Unmixed Flow Model 122

5.4.1.2 Model 2:Well-mixed Flow Model 123

5.4.2 Centrifugal Separators or Cyclones 124

5.4.3 Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) 128

5.4.4 Fabric Filters 132

5.4.5 Spray Chambers and Scrubbers 135

5.5 Worked Examples 137

5.6 Tutorial Problems 140

6 Carbon Capture and Storage 145

6.1 Overview 145

Learning Outcomes 145

6.2 Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 146

6.2.1 General Properties 146

6.2.2 Equations of State 148

6.2.2.1 The Ideal or Perfect Gas Law 148

6.2.2.2 The Compressibility Factor 148

6.2.2.3 Van derWaal Equation of State 148

6.2.2.4 Beattie–Bridgeman Equation (1928) 149

6.2.2.5 Benedict–Webb–Rubin Equation (1940) 150

6.2.2.6 Peng–Robinson Equation of State (1976) 150

6.3 Gas Mixtures 150

6.3.1 Fundamental Mixture Laws 151

6.3.2 PVT Behaviour of Gas Mixtures 151

6.3.2.1 Dalton’s Law 152

6.3.2.2 Amagat’s Law 152

6.3.3 Thermodynamic Properties of Gas Mixtures 153

6.3.4 Thermodynamics of Mixture Separation 155

6.3.4.1 Minimum SeparationWork 155

6.3.4.2 Separation of a Two-component Mixture 156

6.4 Gas SeparationMethods 157

6.4.1 Chemical Absorption by Liquids 157

6.4.1.1 Aqueous Carbon Dioxide and Alkanolamine Chemistry 158

6.4.1.2 Alternative Absorber Solutions 159

6.4.2 Physical Absorption by Liquids 160

6.4.3 Oxyfuel, Cryogenics and Chemical Looping 161

6.4.4 Gas Membranes 162

6.4.4.1 Membrane Flux 163

6.4.4.2 Maximizing Flux 163

6.4.4.3 Membrane Types 163

6.5 Aspects of CO2 Conditioning and Transport 164

6.5.1 Multi-stage Compression 165

6.5.2 Pipework Design 167

6.5.2.1 Pressure Drop 167

6.5.2.2 Materials 167

6.5.2.3 Maintenance and Control 167

6.5.3 Carbon Dioxide Hazards 168

6.5.3.1 Respiration 168

6.5.3.2 Temperature 168

6.5.3.3 Ventilation 168

6.6 Aspects of CO2 Storage 169

6.6.1 Biological Sequestration 169

6.6.2 Mineral Carbonation 171

6.6.3 Geological Storage Media 172

6.6.4 Oceanic Storage 174

6.7 Worked Examples 176

6.8 Tutorial Problems 182

7 Pollution Dispersal 185

7.1 Overview 185

Learning Outcomes 185

7.2 Atmospheric Behaviour 186

7.2.1 The Atmosphere 186

7.2.2 Atmospheric Vertical Temperature Variation and Air Motion 187

7.3 Atmospheric Stability 189

7.3.1 Stability Classifications 190

7.3.2 Stability and Stack Dispersal 191

7.3.2.1 Non-inversion Conditions 191

7.3.2.2 Inversion Conditions 192

7.3.3 Variation inWind Velocity with Elevation 192

7.4 Dispersion Modelling 193

7.4.1 Point Source Modelling 193

7.4.2 Plume Rise 198

7.4.3 Effect of Non-uniform Terrain on Dispersal 199

7.5 Alternative Expressions of Concentration 200

7.6 Worked Examples 200

7.7 Tutorial Problems 203

8 Alternative Energy and Power Plants 207

8.1 Overview 207

Learning Outcomes 207

8.2 Nuclear Power Plants 208

8.2.1 Components of a Typical Nuclear Reactor 208

8.2.2 Types of Nuclear Reactor 209

8.2.3 Environmental Impact of Nuclear Reactors 209

8.3 Solar Power Plants 210

8.3.1 Photovoltaic Power Plants 211

8.3.2 Solar Thermal Power Plants 215

8.4 Biomass Power Plants 216

8.4.1 Forestry, Agricultural and Municipal Biomass for Direct Combustion 217

8.4.1.1 Bulk Density (kg/m3) 217

8.4.1.2 Moisture Content (% by Mass) 217

8.4.1.3 Ash Content (% by Mass) 218

8.4.1.4 Calorific Value (kJ/kg) and Combustion 218

8.4.2 Anaerobic Digestion 220

8.4.3 Biofuels 222

8.4.3.1 Biodiesel 222

8.4.3.2 Bioethanol 222

8.4.4 Gasification and Pyrolysis of Biomass 223

8.5 Geothermal Power Plants 224

8.6 Wind Energy 226

8.6.1 Theory ofWind Energy 227

8.6.1.1 Actual Power Output of the Turbine 229

8.6.2 Wind Turbine Types and Components 230

8.7 Hydropower 230

8.7.1 Types of Hydraulic Power Plant 231

8.7.1.1 Run-of-river Hydropower 231

8.7.1.2 Storage Hydropower 232

8.7.2 Estimation of Hydropower 233

8.7.3 Types of Hydraulic Turbine 233

8.8 Wave and Tidal (or Marine) Power 233

8.8.1 Characteristics ofWaves 234

8.8.2 Estimation ofWave Energy 235

8.8.3 Types ofWave Power Device 235

8.8.4 Tidal Power 237

8.8.4.1 Tidal Barrage Energy 238

8.8.4.2 Tidal Stream Energy 239

8.9 Thermoelectric Energy 239

8.9.1 DirectThermal Energy to Electrical Energy Conversion 240

8.9.2 Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) 241

8.10 Fuel Cells 242

8.10.1 Principles of Simple Fuel Cell Operation 243

8.10.2 Fuel Cell Efficiency 243

8.10.3 Fuel Cell Types 244

8.11 Energy Storage Technologies 244

8.11.1 Energy Storage Characteristics 246

8.11.2 Energy Storage Technologies 246

8.11.2.1 Hydraulic Energy 246

8.11.2.2 Pneumatic Energy 247

8.11.2.3 Ionic Energy 247

8.11.2.4 Rotational Energy 248

8.11.2.5 Electrostatic Energy 249

8.11.2.6 Magnetic Energy 249

8.12 Worked Examples 250

8.13 Tutorial Problems 255

A Properties ofWater and Steam 257

B Thermodynamic Properties of Fuels and Combustion Products 263

Bibliography 265

Index 267