Skip to main content

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Prevention, Diagnosis, Repair, 2nd Edition

Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Prevention, Diagnosis, Repair, 2nd Edition

Luca Bertolini, Bernhard Elsener, Pietro Pedeferri, Elena Redaelli, Rob B. Polder

ISBN: 978-3-527-65171-9

Feb 2013

434 pages

$156.99

Description

Steel-reinforced concrete is used ubiquitously as a building material due to its unique combination of the high compressive strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of steel. Therefore, reinforced concrete is an ideal composite material that is used for a wide range of applications in structural engineering such as buildings, bridges, tunnels, harbor quays, foundations, tanks and pipes. To ensure durability of these structures, however, measures must be taken to prevent, diagnose and, if necessary, repair damage to the material especially due to corrosion of the steel reinforcement.

The book examines the different aspects of corrosion of steel in concrete, starting from basic and essential mechanisms of the phenomenon,
moving up to practical consequences for designers, contractors and owners both for new and existing reinforced and prestressed concrete
structures. It covers general aspects of corrosion and protection of reinforcement, forms of attack in the presence of carbonation and chlorides,
problems of hydrogen embrittlement as well as techniques of diagnosis, monitoring and repair. This second edition updates the contents with
recent findings on the different topics considered and bibliographic references, with particular attention to recent European standards. This
book is a self-contained treatment for civil and construction engineers, material scientists, advanced students and architects concerned with the design and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures. Readers will benefit from the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand corrosion in reinforced concrete and how to prevent it or keep it within acceptable limits.
CEMENTS AND CEMENT PASTE
Portland Cement and Hydration Reactions
Porosity and Transport Processes
Blended Cements
Common Cements
Other Types of Cement

TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN CONCRETE
Composition of Pore Solution and Water Content
Diffusion
Capillary Suction
Permeation
Migration
Mechanisms and Significant Parameters

DEGRADATION OF CONCRETE
Freeze -
Thaw Attack
Attack by Acids and Pure Water
Sulfate Attack
Alkali Silica Reaction
Attack by Seawater

GENERAL ASPECTS
Initiation and Propagation of Corrosion
Corrosion Rate
Consequences
Behavior of Other Metals

CARBONATION-INDUCED CORROSION
Carbonation of Concrete
Initiation Time
Corrosion Rate

CHLORIDE-INDUCED CORROSION
Pitting Corrosion
Corrosion Initiation
Corrosion Rate

ELECTROCHEMICAL ASPECTS
Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion
Noncarbonated Concrete without Chlorides
Carbonated Concrete
Concrete Containing Chlorides
Structures under Cathodic or Anodic Polarization

MACROCELLS
Structures Exposed to the Atmosphere
Buried Structures and Immersed Structures
Electrochemical Aspects
Modeling of Macrocells

STRAY-CURRENT-INDUCED CORROSION
DC Stray Current
AC Stray Current
High-Strength Steel
Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Inspection
Protection from Stray Current

HYDROGEN-INDUCED STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
Failure under Service of High-Strength Steel
Metallurgical, Mechanical and Load Conditions
Environmental Conditions
Hydrogen Generated during Operation
Hydrogen Generated before Ducts Are Filled
Protection of Prestressing Steel

DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
Factors Affecting Durability
Approaches to Service-Life Modeling
The Approach of the European Standards
The fi b Model Code for Service-Life Design for Chloride-Induced Corrosion
Other Methods
Additional Protection Measures
Costs

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY FOR CORROSION PREVENTION
Constituents of Concrete
Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete
Requirements for Concrete and Mix Design
Concrete Production
Design Details
Concrete with Special Properties

CORROSION INHIBITORS
Mechanism of Corrosion Inhibitors
Mode of Action of Corrosion Inhibitors
Corrosion Inhibitors to Prevent or Delay Corrosion Initiation
Corrosion Inhibitors to Reduce the Propagation Rate of Corrosion
Transport of the Inhibitor into Mortar or Concrete
Field Tests and Experience with Corrosion Inhibitors
Critical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors
Effectiveness of Corrosion Inhibitors

SURFACE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
General Remarks
Organic Coatings
Hydrophobic Treatment
Treatments That Block Pores
Cementitious Coatings and Layers
Concluding Remarks on Effectiveness and Durability of Surface Protection Systems

CORROSION-RESISTANT REINFORCEMENT
Steel for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete
Stainless Steel Rebars
Galvanized Steel Rebars
Epoxy-Coated Rebars

INSPECTION AND CONDITION ASSESSMENT
Visual Inspection and Cover Depth
Electrochemical Inspection Techniques
Analysis of Concrete

MONITORING
Introduction
Monitoring with Nonelectrochemical Sensors
Monitoring with Electrochemical Sensors
Critical Factors
On the Way to 'Smart Structures'
Structural Health Monitoring

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR REPAIR
Approach to Repair
Overview of Repair Methods for Carbonated Structures
Overview of Repair Methods for Chloride-Contaminated Structures
Design, Requirements, Execution and Control of Repair Works

CONVENTIONAL REPAIR
Assessment of the Condition of the Structure
Removal of Concrete
Preparation of Reinforcement
Application of Repair Material
Additional Protection
Strengthening

ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES
Development of the Techniques
Effects of the Circulation of Current
Cathodic Protection and Cathodic Prevention
Electrochemical Chloride Extraction and Realkalization

INDEX

For the second edition the authors completely revised and updated the content to reflect the recent developments in the field of corrosion of steel in concrete. Moreover, the new edition includes: coverage of limestone cements, new durability tests in the framework of reliability centered maintenance, performance-based design of concrete, effects of curing on durability, recent insights on the corrosion chemistry of concrete, modern aspects of cathodic protection and, not the least, specific reference to new European rules and regulations.