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Cosmetic Creams: Development, Manufacture and Marketing of Effective Skin Care Products

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Cosmetic Creams: Development, Manufacture and Marketing of Effective Skin Care Products

Wilfried Rähse

ISBN: 978-3-527-81243-1 September 2019 340 Pages

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Description

A guide to cosmetic creams that focuses on formulation, production, and safety concerns

Cosmetic Creams: Development, Manufacture and Marketing of Effective Skin Care Products puts the focus on the structure and formulation of a cosmetic cream, the production process, the effect of each ingredient, as well as safety considerations. Comprehensive in scope, the book contains a basic definition of cosmetics and describes the types of skin creams currently on the market, the major ingredients used, and example compositions. The author, Wilfried Rähse?a noted expert on the topic?offers guidelines for estimating manufacturing costs and includes procedures for an effective safety assessment.

The book contains information on various aspects of skin penetration and production and covers issues like materials used and hygienic packaging. In addition, Rähse reviews legal regulations with an emphasis on the European market. He discusses GMP and EHEDG directives. This important book:

-Offers a comprehensive resource that explores all aspects of cosmetic cream manufacturing and marketing
-Provides valuable guidelines for practitioners in the field
-Covers the underlying technologies of cosmetic creams
-Includes a review of raw material and manufacturing costs, hygiene and safety, and legal regulations
-Written by an author with more than 30 years? experience in the industry

Written for cosmetic chemists, chemists in industry, chemical engineers, dermatologists, Cosmetic Creams: Development, Manufacture and Marketing of Effective Skin Care Products, offers a unique industrial perspective of the topic that is comprehensive in scope.

Preface xi

Prior Publications xiii

1 General and Legal Aspects of Cosmetics 1

1.1 Short Look at the History of Cosmetics 1

1.2 Definition of Cosmetics 2

1.3 Typical Cosmetic Products 3

1.4 Legal Regulations of Cosmetics in Europe 4

1.5 Label Lettering and Trademark 7

1.6 Mandatory Registration of Cosmetic Products 11

1.7 Databases for Ingredients 11

1.8 Regulations in the United States 15

1.9 Regulations of the Cosmetics Markets in Asia 16

1.10 Delimitation of Cosmetic Products 18

1.11 Learnings 23

References 23

2 Economic Importance of Cosmetics 27

2.1 Cosmetics Market and Distribution Channels in Germany 27

2.2 Shopping on the Internet in Germany 30

2.3 European Cosmetics Markets 31

2.4 Cosmetics Market in USA 35

2.5 Cosmetics Market and Distribution Channels in Japan 35

2.6 Chinese Cosmetics Market 37

2.7 World Division in Market Regions 38

2.8 Global Cosmetics Market Size 39

2.9 Trends for Future Development 45

2.10 Largest Cosmetics Manufacturers Worldwide 45

2.11 Top Five Manufacturers 48

2.12 Learnings 56

References 56

3 Cost Structure of the Cosmetic Products and Their Manufacturers 59

3.1 Rough Calculation of the Costs 59

3.1.1 Overview 59

3.1.2 Development Products 61

3.1.3 Determination of the Market Price 61

3.2 Detailed Calculation of the Manufacturing Costs 62

3.2.1 Costs in the Production 62

3.2.2 Production Costs Related to Installation and Building 65

3.2.3 Labor Costs 65

3.2.4 Energy Costs 71

3.2.5 Production Cost Dependencies of Capacity, Operation, and Personnel 73

3.2.6 Raw Material Costs 76

3.3 Costs in the Companies 79

3.3.1 Internal Cost Accounting 80

3.3.2 Direct Costs 81

3.3.3 Overheads in the Company’s Cost and Performance Accounting 82

3.4 Figures from the Published Annual Reports 84

3.4.1 Industry-Dependent Cost Structures of the Companies 84

3.4.2 Profit and Loss Accounts of Global Cosmetics Companies 86

3.5 Methods for Pricing 91

3.5.1 Pricing Depending on the Customer 91

3.5.2 Cost-Oriented Pricing 92

3.5.3 Demand-Oriented Pricing 93

3.5.4 Competition-Oriented Pricing 95

3.5.5 Influence of the Brand 97

3.5.6 Summary of Pricing 98

3.6 Learnings 98

References 99

4 Scientific Descriptions of the Skin 103

4.1 Tasks of the Skin 103

4.2 Structure of the Skin 103

4.3 Concepts for Penetration of the Stratum Corneum 108

4.4 Some Experiments on the Penetration of Lipophilic Substances 114

4.5 Penetration of Agents into the Skin 120

4.6 Gender Differences in the Structure of the Skin 126

4.7 Learnings 127

References 127

5 Composition of Creams for Skin Care 131

5.1 General Structure of a Skin Care Cream 131

5.2 Modules of a Cream 132

5.3 Excipients 140

5.3.1 Emulsifier for Macroemulsions 140

5.3.2 Emulsifier for Mini (Nano) Emulsions 149

5.3.3 Stability of Emulsions 149

5.3.4 Adjusting the Cream Consistency 155

5.3.5 Preservations 158

5.3.6 Antioxidants, Complexing Agents, and Buffer Substances 163

5.4 Additives for Color and Fragrance 167

5.5 Aids Such as Liposomes for the Introduction of Substances into the Skin 167

5.6 Learnings 170

References 171

6 Proven Active Ingredients for Various Categories of Skin Creams 175

6.1 Skin Care 175

6.2 Cream Categories for Skin Care 176

6.2.1 Cosmetic Creams (Mainstream) 176

6.2.2 Natural Cosmetics 176

6.2.3 Cosmeceuticals 182

6.2.4 Medicines for the Skin 184

6.3 Moisture in the Skin 188

6.3.1 Natural Moisturizing Factor 188

6.3.2 Moisturizing Substances 191

6.4 Vitalizing Substances, in Particular Vitamins 196

6.5 Nourishing Vegetable Oils for Smoothing the Skin 201

6.5.1 Natural Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils 203

6.5.2 Vegetable Oils and Fats in Cosmetic Creams 205

6.6 Active Ingredients for Antiaging Creams 212

6.7 Essential Oils 216

6.8 Extracts from Plant Parts 219

6.9 Active Ingredients from the Sea 223

6.10 Origin of the Active Ingredients 225

6.11 Learnings 225

References 227

7 Active Ingredients for Special Products 231

7.1 Definition of Special Creams 231

7.2 Antiacne Creams for Blemished Skin 231

7.3 After-Sun Creams and Lotions for Reddened Skin 236

7.4 Creams for Baby Skin 237

7.5 Prophylaxis at Risk of Pressure Ulcers (Bedsore) 239

7.6 Improving the Appearance of the Skin in the Case of Cellulite 239

7.7 Chemical Removal of Unwanted Hair (Depilatory Cream) 241

7.8 Treatment of Eczema 242

7.9 Cream for the Feet and Against Athlete’s Foot 243

7.10 Cream for Hands 244

7.11 Antiherpes Cream 245

7.12 Cream for Removing Thick Horny Layers (Callus) 246

7.13 Lotions for Body Care 247

7.14 Cream for Itchy Shins 248

7.15 Self-tanning Cream 248

7.16 Sunscreens (UV Protection) 249

7.16.1 Solar Radiation 249

7.16.2 Character of UV Rays 250

7.16.3 Radiation-Induced Damage in the Skin 252

7.16.4 Sunscreen Substances According to the Cosmetics Regulations Worldwide 254

7.16.5 Application and Warning Notices 261

7.16.6 Measurements for the Determination of Sun Protection 265

7.16.7 Recommended Active Ingredients 268

7.16.8 Care Creams with Sun Protection 269

7.17 Comment on Cosmeceuticals 271

7.18 Learnings 271

References 272

8 Proposals for the Formulation of Creams 275

8.1 General Remarks 275

8.2 Moisturizers 276

8.3 Vitalizing Creams 277

8.4 Creams with Smoothing Properties 282

8.5 Antiaging Creams 284

8.6 Acne Creams 287

8.7 After Sun Creams/Lotions 288

8.8 Baby Cream 289

8.9 Bedsore Cream 295

8.10 Cellulite Cream 295

8.11 Foot Care Cream Against Athlete’s Foot 300

8.12 Hand Cream 300

8.13 Callus Removal Cream 300

8.14 Body Lotion 301

8.15 Eye Area Formulation with Sun Protection 304

8.16 Sunscreen Lotion 307

9 Perfumes 309

9.1 Importance of the Perfume for Cosmetic Creams 309

9.2 History of Perfume Oils 310

9.3 Perfume Composition and Markets 312

9.4 Extraction of Fragrances from Plants 315

9.5 Chemical Composition of Natural Fragrances 319

9.6 Possibilities in Product Design of Perfume Oils 327

9.7 Personal Care and Other Products 329

9.8 Safety 330

9.9 Learnings 332

References 333

10 Production of Cosmetic Creams 335

10.1 Method 335

10.2 Stirring and Homogenizing Tools 337

10.3 Laboratory Equipment and Pilot Plant 342

10.4 Batch Production 345

10.5 Continuous Production 350

10.6 Scale-up 350

10.7 Mini-Emulsions 355

10.8 Bottles and Filling Lines 361

10.9 Learnings 366

References 368

11 Regulations and Guidelines for the Execution of Hygienic Productions 371

11.1 Good Manufacturing Practice Rules for the Manufacture of Cosmetics 371

11.2 EHEDG Guidelines for the Construction of the Facility 379

11.3 Materials for the Equipment of Cosmetic Plants 383

11.3.1 Problem 383

11.3.2 Choice of Material 384

11.3.3 Stainless Steel 385

11.3.4 Smoothing the Metal Surfaces 387

11.4 Cleaning-in-Place 392

11.5 Learnings 396

References 396

12 Assessment of the Quality of Cosmetic Creams 399

12.1 Options for Quality Evaluation 399

12.2 Microbial Checks 400

12.3 Specifying the Quality of Cosmetic Creams by Physical Measurements 403

12.3.1 Probes and Devices 403

12.3.2 Moisture and Sebum 403

12.3.3 Firmness and Elasticity 406

12.3.4 Wrinkles 408

12.3.5 Gloss and Color 409

12.3.6 Support of Advertising Claims 409

12.4 Example of a Cream Test by Customers 410

12.5 Learnings 414

References 415

13 Product Information File (P.I.F.) 417

13.1 Provisions of the Cosmetics Regulation 417

13.2 Requirements for the Product Safety Report According to the Cosmetics Regulation 417

13.3 Safety Data Sheet 420

13.4 Structure of the P.I.F. 422

13.4.1 Product Identification and Description 422

13.4.2 Composition of the Cosmetic Cream 422

13.4.3 Toxicological Profile 424

13.4.4 Production Instruction 426

13.4.5 Analysis Report of the Produced Cream 426

13.4.6 Cream Exposure to the Skin 429

13.4.7 Safety Consideration for Babies and Children 434

13.5 Example for a P.I.F. (Body Lotion) 437

13.6 Learnings 452

References 453

Appendix A Formulations 455

Appendix B MSDS Niacinamide 465

Index 475