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Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells

Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells

Sining Yun (Editor), Anders Hagfeldt (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-41367-6

Nov 2018

664 pages

Pre-order

$405.00

Description

A guide to one of the most important aspects for affordable and highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

Dye-sensitized solar cells have the potential to be one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies for production of renewable and clean energy. Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells offers an introduction to the various types of counter electrode catalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells, including metal and metal compounds, carbon materials, polymers, and composites. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the book contains a discussion of the design and synthesis of the catalysts, characterization and stability of the devices, as well as calculations on properties.

The contributors cover a wide range of topics including information on: carbon nanotubes electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; Pt-loaded composite electrocatalysts for I-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells; metal contact electrodes for perovskite solar cells; and much more. The book also includes insight into the future developments in the field.

This important resource

  • Covers the various types of counter electrode catalysts and presents design strategies, synthesis methods, theoretical calculation and stability evaluation
  • Includes information on low-cost counter electrode catalysts and commercial applications of dye-sensitized sensitized solar cells
  • Disscuses how electrode catalysts can be applied in a range of fields, such as solar cells, fuel cells, hydrogen production, and photocatalysis
  • Offers contributions from leading experts in the field including Anders Hagfeldt, one of the world's leading researchers in this field

Written for materials scientists, solid state chemists, electrochemists, catalytic chemists, solid state physicists, and chemical industry professionals, Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells is a comprehensive and authoritative guide to dye-sensitized solar cells. 

Volume 1

Preface xi

About the Editors xiii

1 Counter Electrode Catalysts in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells – An Overview 1
Sining Yun

1.1 History and Cell Efficiency Level of DSSCs 1

1.2 Fabrication Techniques of a DSSC and a Symmetrical Dummy Cell 3

1.2.1 Preparation of Photoelectrode 3

1.2.2 Preparation of Counter Electrodes 5

1.2.3 Cell Fabrication 5

1.3 Operating Principle of DSSCs 5

1.4 Operating Principle of a Counter Electrode in DSSCs 6

1.5 Types and Advances in Counter Electrodes in DSSCs 7

1.5.1 Types of Counter Electrodes in DSSCs 7

1.5.2 Advances in Counter Electrode in DSSCs 8

1.5.2.1 Advances in Carbon Materials in DSSCs 10

1.5.2.2 Advances in Transition Metal Compounds in DSSCs 10

1.5.2.3 Advances in Polymers in DSSCs 11

1.5.2.4 Advances in Hybrids in DSSCs 13

1.6 General Design Consideration of this Book 15

Acknowledgments 16

References 16

2 Pt Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 27
Jayaraman Theerthagiri and Jagannathan Madhavan

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Working Principles of DSSCs and Origin of Pt CE Activity 29

2.3 Platinum Counter Electrode Materials 29

2.4 Platinum-Based Composite Counter Electrode Materials 34

2.5 Stability of Pt-Based CE in I-Mediated Electrolytes 41

2.6 Scope for Further Research 42

2.7 Conclusions 43

Acknowledgments 43

References 43

3 Metal and Alloy for CE Catalysts in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 47
Jialong Duan and Qunwei Tang

3.1 Introduction 47

3.1.1 Background 47

3.2 Metal Counter Electrodes 48

3.3 Alloy Counter Electrodes 49

3.3.1 Low-Pt Alloy Counter Electrodes 49

3.3.2 Pt-Free Alloy Counter Electrodes 54

3.3.3 Transparent Alloy Counter Electrode 57

3.4 PreparationMethods of Alloy Counter Electrodes 60

3.5 The Basic Principles to Prepare Alloy Counter Electrodes 62

3.6 Summary and Perspective 63

Acknowledgments 64

References 64

4 Counter Electrodes in DSSCs Based on Carbon Derived from Edible Sources 71
Rahul Kumar and Parag Bhargava

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Electrochemistry of Carbon 72

4.3 Performance of DSSCs with Counter Electrodes Based on Various Forms of Carbon 73

4.4 Carbon from Edible Precursors 74

4.5 Fabrication of DSSCs 74

4.5.1 Materials Used for Fabrication of DSSC 74

4.5.2 Photoanode 76

4.5.3 Counter Electrode from Sucrose/Glucose/Sugar-Free-Derived Carbon 76

4.5.4 DSSC Device Assembly 77

4.6 Characterization 77

4.7 Structure Analysis of the Carbon Derived from Edible Precursors 78

4.7.1 IR Spectroscopy 78

4.7.2 XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Derived from Edible Precursors 79

4.7.3 Morphology of the Carbon and Carbon Films Derived from Edible Precursors 80

4.8 Cyclic Voltammetry of Counter Electrodes 82

4.9 Photocurrent–Voltage Characteristics of DSSCs Fabricated Using Carbon Derived from Edible Precursors and Platinum 85

4.10 Summary 88

Acknowledgments 88

References 88

5 Carbon Nanotube Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 93
K.S. Anuratha and J.-Y. Lin

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Carbon-Derived Materials 93

5.3 Features of CNTs 95

5.4 Counter Electrode Application of CNTs in DSSCs 96

5.4.1 Pristine CNTs as Electrocatalysts 97

5.4.2 CNT with Dopants as Electrocatalysts 98

5.4.3 CNTs with Transition Metal Sulfides/Nitrides/Carbides/Oxides 101

5.4.4 CNTs with Conducting Polymers 105

5.4.5 CNTs with Graphene 109

5.5 Conclusions 114

References 114

6 Graphene Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 123
Ladislav Kavan

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Counter Electrodes in I-Mediated DSSCs: Fundamentals 123

6.2.1 The I-mediator 123

6.2.2 The Current Collector: Transparent Conducting Oxide 125

6.2.3 The Current Collector: Metals 127

6.2.4 The Current Collector: Graphene 127

6.2.5 The Rate of Triiodide Reduction 129

6.3 Graphene Electrocatalysts for Triiodide Reduction 129

6.3.1 Electrocatalysis on Graphene: Fundamentals 129

6.3.2 Carbon Cathodes in I-Mediated DSSCs (Beyond Graphene) 132

6.3.3 Adhesion of Graphene to FTO 132

6.3.4 Characterization of Electrocatalytic Activity 134

6.3.5 Overview of Practical I-Mediated DSSCs with Graphene Cathode 137

6.4 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgment 143

Abbreviations 143

References 144

7 Transition Metal Compound Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 155
MingxingWu and Tingli Ma

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Transition Metal Compound Counter Electrode Catalysts for Iodide Redox Couple in DSSCs 156

7.2.1 Carbides 157

7.2.2 Nitrides 157

7.2.3 Oxides 161

7.2.4 Sulfides and Phosphides 163

7.2.5 Selenides 168

7.2.6 Borides, Silicides, and Tellurides 169

7.3 Conclusion and Perspectives 170

Acknowledgments 170

References 170

8 Conductive Polymer Based Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 177
Manuel Salado, Samrana Kazim, and Shahzada Ahmad

8.1 Introduction 177

8.2 Nanoporous Electroactive Polymers as Counter Electrodes in DSSCs 179

8.2.1 Polypyrrole (PPy) 180

8.2.2 Polyaniline (PANI) 181

8.2.3 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) 182

8.2.4 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Doped Polystyrene Sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) 184

8.2.5 Ferric p-Toluene Sulfonate (FTS)-Doped Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:FTS) 184

8.2.6 Poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT) 184

8.3 Main Affecting Parameters for High Performance of Polymer Counter Electrodes 186

8.4 New Routes to Improve the Performance of Polymer Counter Electrodes 187

8.5 Summary and Conclusions 189

References 189

9 Pt-Loaded Composite Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 197
Van-Duong Dao, Liudmila L. Larina, and Ho-Suk Choi

9.1 Introduction 197

9.1.1 Background 197

9.1.2 Operating Principles 199

9.2 Pt-Loaded Composite CEs 200

9.2.1 Pt-Loaded Carbon Material CEs 200

9.2.1.1 Carbon Black Composite Pt Counter Electrodes 200

9.2.1.2 Carbon Nanotube Composite Pt Counter Electrodes 202

9.2.1.3 Graphene Composite Pt Counter Electrodes 207

9.2.1.4 Carbon Nanofiber Composite Pt Counter Electrodes 217

9.2.2 Pt-Loaded Conductive Polymer Counter Electrodes 218

9.2.3 Pt-Loaded Transition Metal Compound Counter Electrodes 219

9.2.4 Pt-Loaded Other Metal CEs 222

9.3 Conclusions and Outlook 224

Acknowledgments 225

References 225

10 TMCs/Polymer Composite Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 231
Sudhagar Pitchaimuthu, Raman Vedarajan, K.L. Vincent Joseph, and Yong Soo Kang

10.1 Introduction 231

10.2 Theory 233

10.3 Polymer Counter Electrode in DSSCs 233

10.4 TMC Counter Electrode in DSSCs 237

10.5 Polymer/TMC Composite Electrodes in DSSCs: Recent Strategies 241

10.5.1 TMC Chalcogenide/Polymer-Composite-Based Counter Electrodes 245

10.5.2 TMC Oxide/Polymer Composite-Based Counter Electrodes 249

10.5.3 TMC Nitride/Polymer Composite-Based Counter Electrodes 252

10.5.4 TMC Metal and Alloy/Polymer-Composite-Based Counter Electrodes 254

10.6 Conclusions 257

Acknowledgment 258

References 258

11 Carbon/Polymer Composite Electrocatalysts for the Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 263
Wenbo Sun, Rui Chen, Zhuang Xiong, Shizhe (Scott) Ouyang, Kuan Sun, and Jianyong Ouyang

11.1 Introduction 263

11.2 Conductive Polymers 263

11.2.1 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) 264

11.2.2 Polyaniline 267

11.2.3 Polypyrrole 269

11.2.4 Other Conductive Polymers 270

11.3 Carbon Materials 270

11.3.1 Graphite 270

11.3.2 Graphene 271

11.3.3 Carbon Nanotubes 274

11.3.4 Porous Carbon 275

11.3.5 Other Carbon Materials 276

11.4 Composites as the CE in DSSCs 276

11.4.1 Composites of Two Carbon Allotropes 276

11.4.2 Composites of Carbon Materials and Metal, Metal Oxide or Metal Sulfide 280

11.4.3 Composites of Carbon Materials and Polymers 281

11.5 Summary and Outlook 282

Acknowledgments 283

References 283

Volume 2

Preface xi

About the Editors xiii

12 Carbon/Transition Metal Compound/Polymer Composite Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 295
Hyunwoong Seo

12.1 Introduction 295

12.2 Hybrid Electrocatalysts Based on Carbon, Transition Metal Compound, and Polymer 295

12.3 Hybrid Electrocatalysts Based on Carbon and Transition Metal Compound 298

12.4 Hybrid Electrocatalysts Based on Transition Metal Compound and Polymer 306

12.5 Hybrid Electrocatalysts Based on Carbon and Polymer 311

12.6 Other Hybrid Electrocatalysts 312

12.7 Stability Issue of Pt-Free Electrocatalysts 314

12.8 Concluding Remarks 318

References 318

13 Polycomponent Electrocatalysts for I-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 323
Meidan Ye, Qun Liu, James Iocozzia, Xiaodan Hong, Xiangyang Liu, and Zhiqun Lin

13.1 Introduction 323

13.2 Electrochemical Analysis Methods for Counter Electrodes 324

13.2.1 Current Density–Voltage Measurement 325

13.2.2 Cyclic Voltammetry 327

13.2.3 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 327

13.2.4 Tafel Polarization Analysis 328

13.3 Polycomponent-Based Counter Electrode Materials 329

13.3.1 Ternary Chalcogenides 330

13.3.2 Quaternary Chalcogenides 336

13.3.3 Other Polycomponent Materials 340

13.3.4 Polycomponent-Based Composites 340

13.4 Conclusion and Outlook 343

Acknowledgments 345

References 345

14 Cu Complex Redox Couples Open Up New Possibilities for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 349
Nikolaos Vlachopoulos,Marina Freitag, and Anders Hagfeldt

14.1 Introduction 349

14.2 Overview of Current Status and Operational Principles 350

14.3 Electrochemical Properties of Cu Complexes – Basic Concepts 352

14.3.1 Charge Transfer and Charge Transport Processes: Regeneration, Recombination, Mass Transport, and Counter Electrodes 354

14.3.2 Deleterious Processes 357

14.3.3 Mass Transport 358

14.3.4 Counter Electrodes 359

14.4 Solar Cell Device Performance 359

14.4.1 Iodide and Cobalt-Based Redox Mediators 359

14.4.2 Copper Coordination Complexes 360

14.5 Cu-complex-Based Solid-State DSSC – “Zombie Cells” 362

14.6 Future Outlook 363

References 364

15 Electrocatalysts for T-Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 367
Feng Hao and Hong Lin

15.1 Introduction 367

15.2 Thiolate(T)-Based Redox Couples 368

15.3 Inorganic Transition Metal Compounds 371

15.4 Organic Conductive Polymers 375

15.5 Carbonaceous Materials 379

15.6 Conclusions and Outlook 385

Acknowledgment 387

References 387

16 Stability Assessment Strategy for Counter Electrode Catalysts of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 395
Sining Yun and Peter D. Lund

16.1 Background 395

16.2 Present Stability Assessment for CE Catalysts in DSSCs 396

16.3 Target Values for Stability Assessment of CE Catalysts 399

16.4 Road Map or Stability Assessment of CE Catalysts in DSSCs 399

16.5 Some Examples for Stability Assessment of CE Catalysts 403

16.5.1 Mechanical Stability Assessment 403

16.5.2 Sonication Removal Technique 404

16.5.3 Nano-indentation Surface Scanning Technique 404

16.5.4 Mechanical Bending Technique 404

16.5.5 Tape Adhesion Technique 407

16.5.6 Electrochemical Stability Assessment 408

16.5.6.1 Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Scanning Technique 408

16.5.6.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Technique 409

16.5.6.3 Dark Current–Voltage Characteristics 409

16.5.7 Long-Term Stability Assessment 410

16.6 Remarks 412

Acknowledgments 413

References 413

17 Metal Counter Electrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells 421
Alexander R. Uhl

17.1 Perovskite Solar Cells – Short History and typical Architectures 421

17.2 Metal Counter Electrodes 422

17.3 Gold Electrodes 424

17.4 Silver Electrodes 428

17.5 Silver Nanowire Electrodes 436

17.6 Aluminum Electrodes 438

17.7 Copper Electrodes 441

17.8 Nickel Electrodes 443

17.9 Chromium Electrodes 443

17.10 Calcium Electrodes 444

17.11 Titanium Electrodes 444

17.12 Stainless Steel Electrodes 445

17.13 Metal Alloy Contacts 445

17.14 Summary 446

References 447

18 Carbon Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells 457
Seigo Ito and Ajay Kumar Baranwal

18.1 Introduction 457

18.2 Carbon Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 458

18.3 Carbon Electrodes for Perovskite Solar Cells 463

References 482

19 First-Principles DFT Calculations for Perovskite Solar Cells 487
Jing Shi and Sining Yun

19.1 Introduction 487

19.2 Crystal Structures 488

19.3 Structure Modeling in DFT Calculations 489

19.4 First-Principles Calculations for Electronic Properties 490

19.5 First-Principles Calculations for Defects 494

19.6 Ferroelectric Properties 498

19.7 Conclusions and Outlook 503

References 504

20 Boundary Engineering of Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells 511
Ludmila Cojocaru and Satoshi Uchida

20.1 Boundary Modeling of Perovskite Solar Cells 511

20.2 The Device Capacitance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells 517

20.3 Results and Discussion 519

20.3.1 Evaluation of the Solar Cells Using LED Solar Simulator 519

20.3.2 Capacitance Calculation Using Low Light Intensity I–V Data 520

20.3.3 Evidence of the Capacitance Effects from the Constructed Physical Device 521

20.3.4 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for High-Capacitance-Based Solar Sells 523

20.4 Methods 525

20.4.1 Device Preparation 525

20.4.2 Device Evaluation 525

References 526

Appendix A: Cell Efficiency Table of DSSCs with Various Counter Electrode Electrocatalysts 531
Xiao Zhou, ChenWang, Yangliang Zhang,Wen Fang, Yuzhi Hou, Chen Zhang, XiaodongWang, and Sining Yun

Abbreviations 574

References 576

Index 619