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Cyber Security in Parallel and Distributed Computing: Concepts, Techniques, Applications and Case Studies

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Cyber Security in Parallel and Distributed Computing: Concepts, Techniques, Applications and Case Studies

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Description

The main objective of this book is to explore the concept of cybersecurity in parallel and distributed computing along with recent research developments in the field. It also includes various real-time/offline applications and case studies in the fields of engineering and computer science and the modern tools and technologies used. Information on cybersecurity technologies is organized in the fifteen chapters of this book.

This important book cover subjects such as:

  • Research and solutions for the problem of hidden image detection
  • Security aspects of data mining and possible solution techniques
  • A comparative analysis of various methods used in e-commerce security and how to perform secure payment transactions in an efficient manner
  • Blockchain technology and how it is crucial to the security industry
  • Security for the Internet of Things
  • Security issues and challenges in distributed computing security such as heterogeneous computing, cloud computing, fog computing, etc.
  • Demonstrates the administration task issue in unified cloud situations as a multi-target enhancement issue in light of security
  • Explores the concepts of cybercrime and cybersecurity and presents the statistical impact it is having on organizations
  • Highlights some strategies for maintaining the privacy, integrity, confidentiality and availability of cyber information and its real-world impacts such as mobile security software for secure email and online banking, cyber health check programs for business, cyber incident response management, cybersecurity risk management
  • Security policies and mechanisms, various categories of attacks (e.g., denial-of-service),  global security architecture, along with distribution of security mechanisms
  • Security issues in the healthcare sector with existing solutions and emerging threats.

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xvii

Foreword xix

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxv

Acronyms xxvii

Part 1 Cybersecurity Concept

1 Introduction on Cybersecurity 3
Ishaani Priyadarshini

1.1 Introduction to Cybersecurity 5

1.2 Cybersecurity Objectives 6

1.3 Cybersecurity Infrastructure and Internet Architecture (NIST) 8

1.4 Cybersecurity Roles 10

1.5 Cybercrimes 17

1.5.1 Overview 17

1.5.2 Traditional Computer Crime and Contemporary Computer Crime 18

1.5.3 Combating Crimes 21

1.6 Security Models 23

1.7 Computer Forensics 25

1.8 Cyber Insurance 27

1.8.1 Digital Citizenship 29

1.8.2 Information Warfare and its Countermeasures 31

1.8.3 Network Neutrality 33

1.8.4 Good Practices and Policies 34

1.8.5 Cybersecurity and Human Rights 35

1.9 Future of Cybersecurity 36

1.10 Conclusion 36

References 37

2 Steganography and Steganalysis 39
Ho Thi Huong Thom, Nguyen Kim Anh

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Steganography 41

2.2.1 Method for Evaluating Hidden Information Schema Security 41

2.2.2 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio 42

2.3 Steganalysis 42

2.3.1 Blind Detection Based on LSB 43

2.3.2 Constraint Steganalysis 45

2.4 Conclusion 46

References 46

3 Security Threats and Vulnerabilities in E-business 51
Satya Narayan Tripathy, Sisira Kumar Kapat, Susanta Kumar Das

3.1 Introduction to e-Business 52

3.1.1 Benefits of e-Business 52

3.1.2 Business Revolution 53

3.2 Security Issues in e-Business 54

3.2.1 Vulnerabilities 54

3.2.2 Security Attacks 55

3.2.3 Malware as a Threat 55

3.3 Common Vulnerabilities in e-Business 55

3.3.1 Phishing 55

3.3.2 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 56

3.4 Threats in e-Business 56

3.4.1 Ransomware 56

3.4.2 Spyware 56

3.4.3 Worms 57

3.4.4 Trojan Horse 57

3.5 Prevention Mechanism 57

3.6 Conclusion 58

References 58

4 e-Commerce Security: Threats, Issues, and Methods 61
Prerna Sharma, Deepak Gupta, Ashish Khanna

4.1 Introduction 62

4.2 Literature Review 63

4.3 e-Commerce 63

4.3.1 Characteristics of e-Commerce Technology 63

4.3.2 Architectural Framework of e-Commerce 64

4.3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of e-Commerce 66

4.4 Security Overview in e-Commerce 67

4.4.1 Purpose of Security in e-Commerce 67

4.4.2 Security Element at Different Levels of e-Commerce System 67

4.5 Security Issues in e-Commerce 68

4.5.1 Client Level 68

4.5.2 Front-End Servers and Software Application Level 68

4.5.3 Network and Server Level 68

4.6 Security Threats in e-Commerce 69

4.7 Security Approaches in e-Commerce 72

4.8 Comparative Analysis of Various Security Threats in e-Commerce 73

4.9 e-Commerce Security Life-Cycle Model 73

4.10 Conclusion 75

References 76

5 Cyberwar is Coming 79
T. Manikandan, B. Balamurugan, C. Senthilkumar, R. Rajesh Alias Harinarayan, R. Raja Subramanian

5.1 Introduction 80

5.2 Ransomware Attacks 82

5.2.1 Petya 83

5.2.2 WannaCry 83

5.2.3 Locky 84

5.3 Are Nations Ready? 85

5.4 Conclusion 88

References 88

Part 2 Cybersecurity in Parallel and Distributed Computing Techniques

6 Introduction to Blockchain Technology 93
Ishaani Priyadarshini

6.1 Introduction 94

6.2 Need for Blockchain Security 95

6.3 Characteristics of Blockchain Technology 96

6.4 Types of Blockchains 97

6.5 The Architecture of Blockchain Technology 97

6.6 How Blockchain Technology Works 100

6.7 Some Other Case Studies for Blockchain Technology 102

6.8 Challenges Faced by Blockchain Technology 103

6.9 The Future of Blockchain Technology 105

6.10 Conclusion 106

References 106

7 Cyber-Security Techniques in Distributed Systems, SLAs and other Cyber Regulations 109
Soumitra Ghosh, Anjana Mishra, Brojo Kishore Mishra

7.1 Introduction 110

7.1.1 Primary Characteristics of a Distributed System 110

7.1.2 Major Challenges for Distributed Systems 111

7.2 Identifying Cyber Requirements 112

7.3 Popular security mechanisms in Distributed Systems 113

7.3.1 Secure Communication 113

7.3.2 Message Integrity and Confidentiality 115

7.3.3 Access Controls 116

7.4 Service Level Agreements 118

7.4.1 Types of SLAs 118

7.4.2 Critical Areas for SLAs 119

7.5 The Cuckoo’s Egg in the Context of IT Security 122

7.6 Searching and Seizing ComputerRelated Evidence 124

7.6.1 Computerized Search Warrants 124

7.6.2 Searching and Seizing 125

7.7 Conclusion 126

References 126

8 Distributed Computing Security: Issues and Challenges 129
Munmun Saha, Sanjaya Kumar Panda and Suvasini Panigrahi

8.1 Introduction 130

8.2 Security Issues and Challenges 131

8.2.1 Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability 131

8.2.2 Authentication and Access Control Issue 132

8.2.3 Broken Authentication, Session and Access 132

8.3 Security Issues and Challenges in Advanced Areas 133

8.4 Conclusion 136

References 136

9 Organization Assignment in Federated Cloud Environments based on Multi-Target Optimization of Security 139
Abhishek Kumar, Palvadi Srinivas Kumar, T.V.M. Sairam

9.1 Introduction 140

9.2 Background Work Related to Domain 141

9.2.1 Basics on Cloud computing 141

9.2.2 Clouds Which are Federated 141

9.2.3 Cloud Resource Management 141

9.3 Architectural-Based Cloud Security Implementation 142

9.4 Expected Results of the Process 144

9.5 Conclusion 146

References 146

10 An On-Demand and User-friendly Framework for Cloud Data Centre Networks with Performance Guarantee 149
P. Srinivas Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Pramod Singh Rathore, Jyotir Moy Chatterjee

10.1 Introduction 150

10.1.1 Key Research Problems in This Area 150

10.1.2 Problems with Interoperability 151

10.2 Difficulties from a Cloud Adoption Perspective 151

10.3 Security and Privacy 151

10.3.1 Resource Provisioning 152

10.3.2 How Do We Define Cloud? 153

10.3.3 Public vs Private Cloud-Based Services 153

10.3.4 Traffic-Aware VM Migration to Load Balance Cloud Servers 154

10.4 Conclusion and Future Work 157

References 157

Part 3 Cybersecurity Applications and Case Studies

11 Cybersecurity at Organizations: A Delphi Pilot Study of Expert Opinions About Policy and Protection 163
Holly Reitmeier, Jolanda Tromp, John Bottoms

11.1 Introduction 164

11.1.1 What is Cybercrime? 164

11.1.2 What is Cybersecurity? 165

11.1.3 Purpose of This Cybersecurity Pilot Study 165

11.1.4 Methods of Cybersecurity Professionals 165

11.2 Shocking Statistics of Cybercrime 166

11.2.1 Role of the Internet Crime Complaint Center 166

11.2.2 2016 Global Economic Crime Survey Report 168

11.2.3 Inadequate Preparation at Organizations 168

11.2.4 Organizations: Be Aware, Be Secure 168

11.3 Cybersecurity Policies for Organizations 169

11.3.1 Classification of Cybersecurity at an Organization 171

11.3.2 Pyramid of Cybersecurity 171

11.4 Blockchain Technology 172

11.5 Research Methodology 173

11.5.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection 173

11.5.2 Design of the Study 174

11.5.3 Selection of the Delphi Method 174

11.5.4 Procedure of Utilization of the Delphi Method 175

11.5.5 Delphi Activities (Iteration Rounds) of This Pilot Study 175

11.6 Results of the Cybersecurity Delphi Study 176

11.6.1 Results from Round One 176

11.6.2 Results of Round Two 178

11.6.3 Discussion and Limitations Based on the Results 181

11.7 Conclusion 183

11.7.1 The Literature in the Field 183

11.7.2 Next Steps for Future Research 184

References 184

12 Smartphone Triggered Security Challenges - Issues, Case Studies and Prevention 187
Saurabh Ranjan Srivastava, Sachin Dube, Gulshan Shrivastava, Kavita Sharma

12.1 Introduction 188

12.2 Classification of Mobile Security Threats 188

12.2.1 Physical Threats 189

12.2.2 Web-Based Threats 189

12.2.3 Application-Based Threats 189

12.2.4 Network-Based Threats 190

12.2.5 Data Transfer-Based Threats 191

12.2.6 Improper Session Management-Based Threats 191

12.2.7 Bluetooth-Based Threats 191

12.2.8 Application Platform-Based Threats 192

12.3 Smartphones as a Tool of Crime 192

12.4 Types of Mobile Phone-Related Crimes 193

12.5 Types of Mobile Fraud 196

12.6 Case Studies 198

12.6.1 Mobile Identity Theft 198

12.6.2 Data Theft by Applications 200

12.6.3 SIM Card Fraud 200

12.7 Preventive Measures and Precautions 201

12.7.1 Against Physical Loss and Theft of the Mobile Device 201

12.7.2 Against SMiShing Attacks 202

12.7.3 Against App-Based Attacks 203

12.7.4 Against Identity Theft and SIM Card Fraud 203

12.8 Conclusion 204

References 205

13 Cybersecurity: A Practical Strategy Against Cyber Threats, Risks with Real World Usages 207
Anjana Mishra, Soumitra Ghosh, Brojo Kishore Mishra

13.1 Introduction 208

13.2 Cyberwar 209

13.3 Arms Control in Cyberwar 210

13.4 Internet Security Alliance 211

13.5 Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act 212

13.6 Market for Malware 214

13.7 Mobile Cybersecurity 215

13.8 Healthcare 216

13.9 Human Rights 217

13.10 Cybersecurity Application in Our Life 218

13.11 Conclusion 219

References 219

14 Security in Distributed Operating System: A Comprehensive Study 221
Sushree Bibhuprada B. Priyadarshini, Amiya Bhusan Bagjadab, Brojo Kishore Mishra

14.1 Introduction to Security and Distributed Systems 222

14.2 Relevant Terminology 225

14.3 Types of External Attacks 225

14.4 Globus Security Architecture 228

14.5 Distribution of Security Mechanism 229

14.6 Conclusions 230

References 230

15 Security in Healthcare Applications based on Fog and Cloud Computing 231
Rojalina Priyadarshini, Mohit Ranjan Panda, Brojo Kishore Mishra

15.1 Introduction 232

15.2 Security Needs of Healthcare Sector 233

15.2.1 Data Integrity 233

15.2.2 Data Confidentiality 233

15.2.3 Authentication and Authorization 233

15.2.4 Availability 234

15.2.5 Access Control 234

15.2.6 Dependability 234

15.2.7 Flexibility 234

15.3 Solutions to Probable Attacks in e-Healthcare 234

15.3.1 Jamming Attack 235

15.3.2 Data Collision Attack 235

15.3.3 Desynchronization Attack 235

15.3.4 Spoofing Attack 236

15.3.5 Man-in-the-Middle Attack 236

15.3.6 Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack 237

15.3.7 Insider Attack 238

15.3.8 Masquerade Attack 238

15.3.9 Attacks on Virtual Machine and Hypervisor 239

15.4 Emerging Threats in Cloud- and Fog-Based Healthcare System 240

15.4.1 Software Supply Chain Attacks 240

15.4.2 Ransomware Attacks 240

15.4.3 Crypto-Mining and Crypto-Jacking Malware 240

15.5 Conclusion 241

References 241

16 Mapping of e-Wallets with Features 245
Alisha Sikri, Surjeet Dalal, N.P Singh, Dac-Nhuong Le

16.1 Introduction 246

16.1.1 e-Wallet 246

16.1.2 Objectives 247

16.2 Review of Literature 250

16.3 Market Share of e-Wallet 251

16.3.1 Technical Features 252

16.3.2 Legal Features 252

16.3.3 Operational Features 253

16.3.4 Security Features 253

16.4 Research Methodology 253

16.5 Result Analysis 255

16.6 Conclusions and future work 256

References 256