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DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 12th Edition

DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 12th Edition

J. T. Black, Ronald A. Kohser

ISBN: 978-1-118-98767-4

Jul 2017

864 pages

Description

Newly revised for its twelfth edition, DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 12th Edition continues to be a market-leading text on manufacturing and manufacturing processes courses for over fifty years. Authors J T. Black and Ron Kohser have continued this book's long and distinguished tradition of exceedingly clear presentation and highly practical approach to materials and processes, presenting mathematical models and analytical equations only when they enhance the basic understanding of the material. Updated to reflect all current practices, standards, and materials, the twelfth edition has new coverage of additive manufacturing, lean engineering, and processes related to ceramics, polymers, and plastics.

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Preface iv

1 Introduction to DeGarmo’s Materials and Processes in Manufacturing 1

1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standard of Living 1

1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems 3

Review Questions 24

Problems 25

2 Properties of Materials 26

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Static Properties 28

2.3 Dynamic Properties 38

2.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low) 43

2.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability 46

2.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach 46

2.7 Physical Properties 48

2.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns 48

Review Questions 48

Problems 50

3 Nature of Materials 51

3.1 Structure—Property—Processing—Performance Relationships 51

3.2 The Structure of Atoms 52

3.3 Atomic Bonding 52

3.4 Secondary Bonds 53

3.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials 54

3.6 Crystal Structures 54

3.7 Development of a Grain Structure 56

3.8 Elastic Deformation 56

3.9 Plastic Deformation 57

3.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage 58

3.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 59

3.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Material 60

3.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties 60

3.14 Fracture 61

3.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working 61

3.16 Grain Growth 62

3.17 Alloys and Alloy Types 62

3.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties 62

Review Questions 63

Problems 64

4 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron–Carbon System 65

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Phases 65

4.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 65

4.4 Iron–Carbon Equilibrium Diagram 71

4.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron–Carbon Diagram 72

4.6 Cast Irons 74

Review Questions 75

Problems 76

5 Heat Treatment 77

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Processing Heat Treatments 77

5.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength 80

5.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals 80

5.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel 83

5.6 Surface Hardening of Steel 94

5.7 Furnaces 96

5.8 Heat Treatment and Energy 97

Review Questions 98

Problems 99

6 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 101

6.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials 101

6.2 Ferrous Metals 101

6.3 Iron 102

6.4 Steel 102

6.5 Stainless Steels 113

6.6 Tool Steels 115

6.7 Cast Irons 117

6.8 Cast Steels 120

6.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties 120

Review Questions 121

Problems 122

7 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys 124

7.1 Introduction 124

7.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 124

7.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 129

7.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 135

7.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys 137

7.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 138

7.7 Nickel-Based Alloys 139

7.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service 139

7.9 Lead and Tin and Their Alloys 142

7.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys 142

7.11 Metallic Glasses 142

7.12 Graphite 143

7.13 Materials for Specific Applications 143

7.14 High Entropy Alloys 143

Review Questions 144

Problems 145

8 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites 146

8.1 Introduction 146

8.2 Plastics 146

8.3 Elastomers 157

8.4 Ceramics 160

8.5 Composite Materials 167

Review Questions 175

Problems 177

9 Material Selection 178

9.1 Introduction 178

9.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes 180

9.3 The Design Process 180

9.4 Approaches to Material Selection 181

9.5 Additional Factors to Consider 184

9.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process 184

9.7 Ultimate Objective 185

9.8 Materials Substitution 186

9.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection 187

9.10 Aids to Material Selection 187

Review Questions 188

Problems 189

10 Measurement and Inspection 192

10.1 Introduction 192

10.2 Standards of Measurement 192

10.3 Allowance and Tolerance 195

10.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement 201

10.5 Measuring Instruments 202

10.6 Vision Systems 209

10.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines 210

10.8 Angle-Measuring Instruments 212

10.9 Gages for Attributes Measuring 212

Review Questions 215

Problems 216

11 Nondestructive Examination (NDE) / Nondestructive Testing (NDT) 218

11.1 Destructive vs. Nondestructive Testing 218

11.2 Visual Inspection 220

11.3 Liquid Penetrant Inspection 220

11.4 Magnetic Particle Inspection 221

11.5 Ultrasonic Inspection 222

11.6 Radiography 224

11.7 Eddy-Current Testing 225

11.8 Acoustic Emission Monitoring 227

11.9 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection 228

11.10 Dormant vs. Critical Flaws 229

11.11 Current and Future Trends 229

Review Questions 229

Problems 230

12 Process Capability and Quality Control 232

12.1 Introduction 232

12.2 Determining Process Capability 233

12.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control 239

12.4 Sampling Errors 243

12.5 Gage Capability 244

12.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control 244

12.7 Six Sigma 253

12.8 Summary 256

Review Questions 256

Problems 257

13 Fundamentals of Casting 259

13.1 Introduction to Materials Processing 259

13.2 Introduction to Casting 260

13.3 Casting Terminology 261

13.4 The Solidification Process 262

13.5 Patterns 270

13.6 Design Considerations in Castings 271

13.7 The Casting Industry 274

Review Questions 274

Problems 276

14 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes 277

14.1 Introduction 277

14.2 Sand Casting 277

14.3 Cores and Core Making 290

14.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns 293

14.5 Expendable-Mold Processes using Single-Use Patterns 294

14.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing 300

14.7 Summary 300

Review Questions 300

Problems 302

15 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes 303

15.1 Introduction 303

15.2 Permanent-Mold Casting 303

15.3 Die Casting 306

15.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting 309

15.5 Centrifugal Casting 310

15.6 Continuous Casting 312

15.7 Melting 312

15.8 Pouring Practice 315

15.9 Cleaning, Finishing, Heat Treating, and Inspection 315

15.10 Automation in Foundry Operations 316

15.11 Process Selection 316

Review Questions 318

Problems 319

16 Powder Metallurgy (Particulate Processing) 320

16.1 Introduction 320

16.2 The Basic Process 320

16.3 Powder Manufacture 321

16.4 Powder Testing and Evaluation 322

16.5 Powder Mixing and Blending 323

16.6 Compacting 323

16.7 Sintering 326

16.8 Advances in Sintering (Shorter Time, Higher Density, Stronger Products) 327

16.9 Hot-Isostatic Pressing 328

16.10 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density P/M Products 329

16.11 Metal Injection Molding (MIM) 329

16.12 Secondary Operations 331

16.13 Properties of P/M Products 332

16.14 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts 334

16.15 Powder Metallurgy Products 334

16.16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy 336

16.17 Process Summary 337

Review Questions 338

Problems 339

17 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 341

17.1 Introduction 341

17.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables 341

17.3 Dependent Variables 342

17.4 Independent–Dependent Relationships 343

17.5 Process Modeling 344

17.6 General Parameters 344

17.7 Friction, Lubrication, and Wear under Metalworking Conditions 345

17.8 Temperature Concerns 346

17.9 Formability 352

Review Questions 352

Problems 354

18 Bulk Forming Processes 355

18.1 Introduction 355

18.2 Classification of Deformation Processes 355

18.3 Bulk Deformation Processes 355

18.4 Rolling 356

18.5 Forging 360

18.6 Extrusion 370

18.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing 374

18.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion 376

18.9 Piercing 379

18.10 Other Squeezing Processes 380

18.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing 382

Review Questions 383

Problems 384

19 Sheet-Forming Processes 387

19.1 Introduction 387

19.2 Shearing Operations 387

19.3 Bending 393

19.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes 400

19.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products 411

19.6 Seamed Pipe Manufacture 411

19.7 Presses 412

Review Questions 416

Problems 418

20 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites 419

20.1 Introduction 419

20.2 Fabrication of Plastics 419

20.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers 429

20.4 Processing of Ceramics 430

20.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials 434

Review Questions 442

Problems 444

21 Fundamentals of Machining/ Orthogonal Machining 446

21.1 Introduction 446

21.2 Fundamentals 446

21.3 Forces and Power in Machining 454

21.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces) 457

21.5 Chip Thickness Ratio, rc 460

21.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics) 461

21.7 Shear Strain, γ, and Shear Front Angle, ϕ 462

21.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics) (Section courtsey of Dr. Elliot Stern) 464

Summary 470

Review Questions 470

Problems 471

22 Cutting Tool Materials 472

22.1 Cutting Tool Materials 475

22.2 Tool Geometry 485

22.3 Tool-Coating Processes 486

22.4 Tool Failure and Tool Life 488

22.5 Taylor Tool Life 489

22.6 Cutting Fluids 494

22.7 Economics of Machining 494

Review Questions 496

Problems 497

23 Turning and Boring Processes 499

23.1 Introduction 499

23.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning 501

23.3 Lathe Design and Terminology 505

23.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes 510

23.5 Workholding in Lathes 514

Review Questions 518

Problems 519

24 Milling 520

24.1 Introduction 520

24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes 520

24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters 527

24.4 Machines for Milling 531

Review Questions 535

Problems 535

25 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes 536

25.1 Introduction 536

25.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process 537

25.3 Types of Drills 538

25.4 Tool Holders for Drills 548

25.5 Workholding for Drilling 549

25.6 Machine Tools for Drilling 549

25.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling 552

25.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing 554

25.9 Reaming 554

Review Questions 556

Problems 557

26 CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and A(5) Levels of Automation 558

26.1 Introduction 558

26.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control 558

26.3 CNC Part Programming 564

26.4 Interpolation and Adaptive Control 571

26.5 Machining Center Features and Trends 574

26.6 Summary 578

Review Questions 578

Problems 579

27 Sawing, Broaching, Shaping, and Filing Machining Processes 581

27.1 Introduction 581

27.2 Introduction to Sawing 581

27.3 Introduction to Broaching 589

27.4 Fundamentals of Broaching 591

27.5 Broaching Machines 596

27.6 Introduction to Shaping and Planing 596

27.7 Introduction to Filing 600

Review Questions 602

Problems 603

28 Abrasive Machining Processes 604

28.1 Introduction 604

28.2 Abrasives 606

28.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade 609

28.4 Grinding Wheel Identification 613

28.5 Grinding Machines 617

28.6 Honing 624

28.7 Superfinishing 625

28.8 Free Abrasives 626

28.9 Design Considerations in Grinding 630

Review Questions 630

Problems 631

29 Nano and Micro-Manufacturing Processes 632
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

29.1 Introduction 632

29.2 Lithography 635

29.3 Micromachining Processes 638

29.4 Deposition Processes 641

29.5 How ICs Are Made 647

29.6 Nano- and Micro-Scale Metrology 653

Review Questions 655

Problems 656

30 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes 657
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

30.1 Introduction 657

30.2 Chemical Machining Processes 659

30.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 663

30.4 Electrical Discharge Machining 668

Review Questions 676

31 Thread and Gear Manufacturing 678

31.1 Introduction 678

31.2 Thread Making 682

31.3 Internal Thread Cutting–Tapping 685

31.4 Thread Milling 687

31.5 Thread Grinding 687

31.6 Thread Rolling 689

31.7 Gear Theory and Terminology 691

31.8 Gear Types 693

31.9 Gear Manufacturing 694

31.10 Machining of Gears 695

31.12 Gear Finishing 701

31.13 Gear Inspection 702

Review Questions 703

Problems 704

32 Surface Integrity and Finishing Processes 705

32.1 Introduction 705

32.2 Surface Integrity 705

32.3 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing 713

32.4 Chemical Cleaning 717

32.5 Coatings 718

32.6 Vaporized Metal Coatings 726

32.7 Clad Materials 726

32.8 Textured Surfaces 726

32.9 Coil-Coated Sheets 726

32.10 Edge Finishing and Burr Removal 727

Review Questions 729

33 Additive Processes—Including 3-D Printing 730

33.1 Introduction 730

33.2 Layerwise Manufacturing 731

33.3 Liquid-Based Processes 734

33.4 Powder-Based Processes 736

33.5 Deposition-Based Processes 740

33.6 Uses and Applications 743

33.7 Pros, Cons and Current and Future Trends 746

33.8 Economic Considerations 748

Review Questions 749

Problems 750

34 Manufacturing Automation and Industrial Robots 751

34.1 Introduction 751

34.2 The A(4) Level of Automation 756

34.3 A(5) Level of Automation Requires Evaluation 762

34.4 Industrial Robotics 766

34.5 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) 772

34.6 Computer-Aided Design 774

34.7 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 776

34.8 Summary 776

Review Questions 777

Problems 778

35 Fundamentals of Joining 779

35.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes 779

35.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes 780

35.3 Some Common Concerns 780

35.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints 781

35.5 Design Considerations 783

35.6 Heat Effects 783

35.7 Weldability or Joinability 788

35.8 Summary 788

Review Questions 789

Problems 790

36 Gas Flame and Arc Processes 792

36.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding 792

36.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting 795

36.3 Flame Straightening 797

36.4 Arc Welding 797

36.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding 798

36.6 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding 804

36.7 Other Processes Involving Arcs 808

36.8 Arc Cutting 810

36.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting 812

36.10 Welding Equipment 812

36.11 Thermal Deburring 813

Review Questions 814

Problems 816

37 Resistance and Solid-State Welding Processes 817

37.1 Introduction 817

37.2 Theory of Resistance Welding 817

37.3 Resistance Welding Processes 819

37.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding 823

37.5 Solid-State Welding Processes 823

Review Questions 831

Problems 832

38 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering 833

38.1 Introduction 833

38.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes 833

38.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes 840

38.4 Brazing 843

38.5 Soldering 850

Review Questions 853

Problems 854

39 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Non-Metals 856

39.1 Adhesive Bonding 856

39.2 Mechanical Fastening 863

39.3 Joining of Plastics 866

39.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass 868

39.5 Joining of Composites 869

Review Questions 869

Problems 870

40 JIG and Fixture Design 872
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

40.1 Introduction 872

40.2 Conventional Fixture Design 872

40.3 Tool Design Steps 875

40.4 Clamping Considerations 876

40.5 Chip Disposal 877

40.6 Example of Jig Design 877

40.7 Types of Jigs 879

40.8 Conventional Fixtures 881

40.9 Modular Fixturing 881

40.10 Setup and Changeover 882

40.11 Clamps 887

40.12 Other Workholding Devices 887

40.13 Economic Justification of Jigs and Fixtures 890

Review Questions 891

Problems 891

41 The Enterprise (Production System) 893
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

41.1 Introduction 893

41.2 Typical Functional Areas in the Production System (PS) 893

Review Questions 908

Problems 909

42 Lean Engineering 910
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

42.1 Introduction 910

42.2 The Lean Engineer 910

42.3 The Lean Production System 910

42.4 Linked-Cell Manufacturing System Design Rules 911

42.5 Manufacturing System Designs 912

42.6 Preliminary Steps to Lean Production 913

42.7 Methodology for Implementation of Lean Production 914

42.8 Design Rule MT < CT 926

42.9 Decouplers 927

42.10 Integrating Production Control 930

42.11 Integrating Inventory Control 932

42.12 Lean Manufacturing Cell Design 933

42.13 Machine Tool Design for Lean Manufacturing Cells 936

42.14 L-CMS Strategy 940

Review Questions 941

Problems 942

43 Mixed-Model Final Assembly 943
(online at www.wiley.com/college/ degarmo)

43.1 Introduction 943

43.2 History 943

43.3 Mixed-Model Final Assembly 944

43.4 An Example of MMFA 945

43.5 Key Enabling Systems 945

43.6 Manual Assembly Line Balancing 947

43.7 Sequencing 949

43.8 Quality in Mixed-Model Final Assembly 950

43.9 Examples of Assembly Aids/Poka-Yoke (Error-Proofing) Applications 952

Summary 953

Review Questions 953

Problems 954

Index 955

Selected References for Additional Study 967

  • NEW chapter on Additive Manufacturing incorporates the aspects of rapid prototyping, rapid tooling, and direct digital manufacturing, and provide updated information on many recent advances in this area
  • NEW emerging technology is incorporated, and existing technologies are updated to accurately reflect current capabilities
  • Four additonal chapters are provided online at the book website: these chapters cover electronic manufacturing, thread and gear manufacture, nondestructive testing and inspection, and the enterprise (production system).
  • Materials section focuses on properties and behaviors, while coverage of processes offers a descriptive introduction to the wide variety of options
  • Emphasizes application and design
  • Presents mathematical models and analytical equations sparingly
  • Case studies provide real-world examples