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Dealing with Aging Process Facilities and Infrastructure

Dealing with Aging Process Facilities and Infrastructure

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

ISBN: 978-1-119-43083-4

Apr 2018

208 pages

In Stock

$125.00

Description

Examines the concept of aging process facilities and infrastructure in high hazard industries and highlights options for dealing with the problem while addressing safety issues

This book explores the many ways in which process facilities, equipment, and infrastructure might deteriorate upon continuous exposure to operating and climatic conditions. It covers the functional and physical failure modes for various categories of equipment and discusses the many warning signs of deterioration. Dealing with Aging Process Facilities and Infrastructure also explains how to deal with equipment that may not be safe to operate. The book describes a risk-based strategy in which plant leaders and supervisors can make more informed decisions on aging situations and then communicate them to upper management effectively. Additionally, it discusses the dismantling and safe removal of facilities that are approaching their intended lifecycle or have passed it altogether.

Filled with numerous case studies featuring photographs to illustrate the positive and negative experiences of others who have dealt with aging facilities, Dealing with Aging Process Facilities and Infrastructure covers the causes of equipment failures due to aging and their consequences; plant management commitment and responsibility; inspection and maintenance practices for managing life cycle; specific aging asset integrity management practices; and more.

  • Describes symptoms and causal mechanisms of aging in various categories of process equipment
  • Presents key considerations for making informed risk-based decisions regarding the repair or replacement of aging process facilities and infrastructure
  • Discusses practices for managing process facility and infrastructure life cycle
  • Includes examples and case histories of failures related to aging 

Dealing with Aging Process Facilities and Infrastructure is an important book for industrial practitioners who are often faced with the challenge of managing process facilities and infrastructure as they approach the end of their useful lifecycle.

List of Tables xi

List of Figures xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Preface

1. Introduction 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Purpose 2

1.3 Aging: Concerns, Cause and Consequences 2

1.4 How Aging Occurs 6

1.4.1 Metallic Corrosion 7

1.4.2 Corrosion Under Deposits 8

1.4.3 Corrosion Under Insulation and Fireproofing 8

1.4.4 Manufacturing Defects 9

1.4.5 Excessive Wear and Tear 10

1.4.6 Fatigue 11

1.4.7 Non-Metallic Aging 12

1.4.8 Aging of Physical Structures 12

1.4.9 Process Chemicals Aging 13

1.4.10 Aging of Specialized Equipment 14

1.4.11 Obsolescence 14

1.4.12 Redundancy 15

1.4.13 Brownfield Construction 16

2. Aging Equipment Failures, Causes and Consequences 19

2.1 Aging Equipment Failure and Mechanisms 19

2.2 Consequences of Aging Equipment Incidents 20

2.3 Mechanical Failure of Metal 23

2.3.1 Deformation of Materials 23

2.3.2 Ductile vs. Brittle Fracture 24

2.3.3 Metal Fatigue 24

2.3.4 Corrosion/Erosion 25

2.3.5 Warning Signs 29

2.3.6 Aging Equipment Failure Case Studies 30

2.4 System Functional Aging 33

2.4.1 Aging Equipment Failure Mechanisms 34

2.5 Aging Structures 35

2.5.1 Warning Signs 36

2.5.2 Aging Structure Case Study 36

3. Plant Management Commitment and Responsibility 41

3.1 Promoting Site Safety Culture 41

3.2 Management Challenges 41

3.3 Monitoring Aging Process and Measuring Performance 42

3.4 Human Resources Requirements 44

3.5 Planning for Equipment Retirement and Replacement 45

3.6 Appreciating the Importance of Aging Infrastructure to the Business Enterprise 47

3.6.1 Structural Assets 47

3.6.2 Roads 47

3.6.3 Impoundments and Dikes 47

3.6.4 Fire Water, Cooling Water and Sewers 48

3.6.5 Electrical Distribution Systems 48

3.6.6 Marine Facilities 48

3.6.7 Other Process Facility Infrastructure 48

3.7 Addressing Aging Infrastructure in Decision Process 49

3.7.1 Questions Executives Need to Ask 49

3.7.2 Mergers and Acquisitions 50

4. Risk Based Decisions 51

4.1 Risk Management Basics 51

4.1.1 Risk Ranking 53

4.1.2 Risk Mitigation Controls 55

4.2 Risk Based Decisions 55

4.2.1 When to Apply Risk Based Decisions 57

4.3 How to Apply Risked Based Decisions 57

4.3.1 Determine Hazard Scenarios. 60

4.3.2 Assess Consequences 60

4.3.3 Assess Likelihood 61

4.3.4 Determine Risk 61

4.3.5 Develop Risk Mitigation Controls 62

4.3.6 Implement Risk Controls 63

4.3.7 Information Required for Risk Based Decisions 63

4.3.8 Documentation of Risk Based Decisions 64

4.4 Embracing Risk Based Management 65

4.4.1 Alignment of Management and Operations with Risk Based Decisions 65

4.4.2 Incorporate Corporate Responsibility and Economic Value 65

4.5 Dealing with Unexpected Events 66

4.6 Risk Based Decisions Success Metrics 67

5. Managing Process Equipment and Infrastructure Lifecycle 69

5.1 Lifecycle Stages 69

5.2 Asset Lifecycle Management 69

5.2.1 Management Strategy Development 70

5.2.2 Organizational Design 70

5.2.3 Long-Term Asset Planning 72

5.3 General Topics 72

5.3.1 Manage by Operational Integrity 72

5.3.2 Managing Change During Lifecycle 73

5.3.3 Orphaned Assets 76

5.3.4 Disrepair of Assets 76

5.3.5 Extending Lifecycle with Rebuilt Equipment 77

5.3.6 Managing Used or Refurbished Equipment 78

5.3.7 Mothballing and Re-commissioning of Aged Assets 79

5.3.8 Partial Upgrades to Older Facilities and Equipment 80

5.4 Predicting Asset Service Life 80

5.4.1 Mean Life and Age 80

5.4.2 Assessing End-of-Life Failure Probability 81

5.4.3 Aging Process and Maintenance 84

5.5 Infrastructure Specific Topics 85

6. Inspection and Maintenance Practices for Managing Life Cycle 87

6.1 Inspection and Maintenance Goals 88

6.1.1 Vision 88

6.1.2 Inspection and Maintenance Commitment for Expected Lifecycle of Equipment 88

6.1.3 Implementation of Formal Comprehensive Inspection, Testing and Preventive Maintenance Program 88

6.1.4 Need Justifiable Inspection and Maintenance Practices 89

6.1.5 Managing Aging Asset Strategies 89

6.2 Inspection and Maintenance Program Elements 91

6.2.1 Maintenance Program 94

6.2.2 Inspection Program 99

6.3 Inspection and Maintenance Program Resources 102

6.3.1 Human Resources 102

6.4 Addressing Infrastructure Deficiencies 104

6.4.1 Inspection Follow-up 105

7. Specific Aging Asset Integrity Management Practices 113

7.1 Structural Assets 113

7.1.1 Structure Foundations 113

7.1.2 Support Structures 116

7.1.3 Piping Systems, Pipe Racks and Overpass Information 119

7.1.4 Buildings 120

7.1.5 Inspection and Maintenance RAGAGEPs 123

7.2 Electrical Distribution and Controls 125

7.2.1 Electrical System 125

7.2.2 Control System 134

7.3 Earthworks: Roads, Impoundments, and Railways 137

7.3.1 Roads 137

7.3.2 Earthworks Infrastructure: Trenches, Dikes and Storage Ponds 139

7.3.3 Railways and Spurs 143

7.4 Marine Facilities: Terminals and Jetties 146

7.4.1 Marine Facilities Information 146

7.4.2 Marine Facility Inspection 148

7.4.3 Marine Facilities Aging Warning Signs 150

7.5 Underground Utility Systems 150

7.5.1 Electric Cables 151

7.5.2 Utility Underground Piping: Fuel Gas, Cooling Water, Fire Water, Drains and Sewers 153

8. Decommissioning, Dismantlement and Removal of Redundant Equipment 157

8.1 Introduction 157

8.2 Equipment Hazards 158

8.2.1 Unknown or Undocumented Condition 158

8.2.2 Dismantling Residual Chemical Hazards 158

8.2.3 Custody After Removal 160

8.3 Final Decommissioning Practices 160

8.3.1 Cleaning 160

8.3.2 Retaining Spare Equipment and Parts 161

8.3.3 Disposal of Chemicals 161

8.4 Dismantling and Disposal 162

8.4.1 Degassing 162

8.4.2 Inerting 162

8.4.3 Removal from Operating Facilities 163

8.4.4 Site Cleanup 163

8.4.5 Scrap Value 165

9. Onward and Beyond 167

Acronyms 169

References 173

Appendix A: Aging Asset Case Studies 177

Case Study 1: Gas Distribution Pipeline Explosion 177

Case Study 2: Mississippi Bridge Collapse 178

Case Study 3: Sinking Building Foundation 179

Case Study 4: Tailings Dam Failure 179

Case Study 5: Sinking of the Betelgeuse 180

Case Study 6: Alexander Kielland Drilling Rig Disaster 182

Case Study 7: Roof Collapse at Ore Processing Facility 182

Index 183