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Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust

Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust

Manik Talwani (Editor), Christopher G. Harrison (Editor), Dennis E. Hayes (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66623-4

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

431 pages

Select type: O-Book


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Maurice Ewing Series, Volume 2.

The second Maurice Ewing Symposium was devoted to the implications of deep drilling results in the Atlantic Ocean. This subject was chosen for two reasons. First, Maurice Ewing was one of the leaders of JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions For Deep Earth Sampling), the association of oceanographic institutions that was formed to organize and sponsor drilling in the deep ocean, and which has continued to provide scientific advice to the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Second, the first phase of International Program of Ocean Drilling in the Atlantic was finished and it seemed a good time to assess the implications of drilling results in the Atlantic that had been obtained over almost a decade.

Preface v

Acoustic Stratigraphy and Structure of the Oceanic Crust
John I. Ewing and Robert Houtz 1

Tectonic Processes on Slow Spreading Ridges
A. S. Laughton and R. C. Searle 15

Constraints from the Famous Area Concerning the Structure of the Oceanic Section
Tanya Atwater 33

The Iceland Crust: Evidence from Drillhole Data on Structure and Processes
G. Palmason, S. Arnersson, I. B. Fridleifsson, H. Kristmannsdottir, K. Saemundsson, V Stefdnsson, B. Steingrlmsson, I. Tomasson and L. Kristjansson 43

Geological and Geophysical Investigation of the Midcayman Rise Spreading Center: Initial Results and
R. Ballard, W Bryan, H. Dick, K. O. Emery, G. Thompson, E. Uchupi, K. E. Davis, J. Boer, S. DeLong, P. Fox, F. Malcolm, R. Spydell, 1. Stroup, W Melson, and R. Wright 66

Seismic Velocities, Densities, Electrical Resistivities, Porosities and Thermal Conductivities of Core Samples from Boreholes into the Islands of Bermuda and the Azores
R. D. Hyndman, N I. Christensen, and M. I. Drury 94

The Physical State of the Upper Levels of Cretaceous Oceanic Crust from the Results of Logging, Laboratory Studies and the Oblique Seismic Experiment at DSDP Sites 417 and 418
M. H. Salisbury, R. Stephen, N I. Christensen, I. Francheteau, Y Hamano, M. Hobart and D. Johnson 113

Geomagnetic Reversals and Ocean Crust Magnetization
William Lowrie 135

Modeling the Oceanic Magnetic Source Layer
Hans Schouten and Charles R. Denham 151

On the Likelihood of Mixed Polarity in Oceanic Basement Drill Cores
Charles R. Denham and Hans Schouten 160

A Model for the Structural State of the Upper Half Kilometer of North Atlantic Ocean Layer 1
James M. Hall 166

Low Temperature Alteration of the Magnetic Minerals in Ocean Floor Basalts
N. Petersen, P. Eisenach and U. Bleil 169

Magnetism of the Mid-Atlantic Crest Near 37°N from Famous and DSDP Results: A Review
M. Privot, A. Lecaille and R. Hekinian 210

Metamorphism in the Ocean Crust
I. R. Cann 230

Tectonic and Igneous Emplacement of Crust in Oceanic Transform Zones
E. Bonatti, A. Chermak and I. Honnorez 239

Basaltic Glass Erupted Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Between 0-37°N: Relationships Between Composition and Latitude
William G. Melson and Timothy O'Hearn 249

The Evolution of Ocean-Floor Basaltic Magmas
I. M. Rhodes and M. A. Dungan 262

Petrologic Character of the Atlantic Crust from DSDP and IPOD Drill Sites
W. Bryan, G. Thompson and F. Frey 273

Nature of Mantle Heterogeneity in the North Atlantic: Evidence from Leg 49 Basalts
J. Tarney, D. A. Wood, I. Varet, A. D. Saunders and J. R. Cann 285

The Primary Melt of the Oceanic Tholeiite and the Upper Mantle Composition
L. V Dmitriev, A. V Sobolev and N. M. Suschevskaja 302

Evolution of the 'Famous' Ocean Ridge Segment: Evidenee from Submarine and Deep Sea Drilling
Martin Flower and Paul T. Robinson 314

Controls on the Major and Minor Element Chemistry of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts and Glasses
A. E. Bence, D. M. Baylis, J. F. Bender and T. L. Grove 331

Isotope Geochemical Studies of North Atlantic Ocean Basalts and Their Implications for Mantle Evolution
R. K. O'Nions, N M. Evensen, S. R. Carter and P. I. Hamilton 342

Alteration, Fractional Crystallization, Partial Melting, Mantle Properties from Trace Elements in Basalts
Recovered in the North Atlantic
H. Bougault, I. Joron and M. Treuil 352

Very-Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Alteration of the Oceanic Crust and the Problem of Fluxes of
Potassium and Magnesium
T. W Donnelly, G. Thompson and P. T. Robinson 369

Ridge Crest-Hydrothermal Metamorphism at the Galapagos Spreading Center and Reverse Weathering
J. Edmond, I. B. Corliss and L. I. Gordon 383

Some Implications of Heat/Mass Ratios in Galapagos Rift Hydrothermal Fluids for Models of Sea WaterRock, Interaction and the Formation of Oceanic Crust
I. Corliss, L. L Gordon and I. M. Edmond 391

Chemistry of Ridge-Crest Sediments from the North Atlantic Ocean
M. R. Scott, P. F. Salter and L. A. Barnard 403

Ophiolitic Rocks and Evidence for Hydrothermal Convection of Sea Water Within Crust
Edward T. C. Spooner 429