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Deep Space Communications

Deep Space Communications

Jim Taylor (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-16902-4

Aug 2016

592 pages

In Stock

$160.00

Description

A collection of some of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's space missions selected to represent the planetary communications designs for a progression of various types of missions

The text uses a case study approach to show the communications link performance resulting from the planetary communications design developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This is accomplished through the description of the design and performance of six representative planetary missions. These six cases illustrate progression through time of the communications system's capabilities and performance from 1970s technology to the most recent missions. The six missions discussed in this book span the Voyager for fly-bys in the 1970s, Galileo for orbiters in the 1980s, Deep Space 1 for the 1990s, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for planetary orbiters, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for planetary rovers in the 2000s, and the MSL rover in the 2010s.

Deep Space Communications:

  • Provides an overview of the Deep Space Network and its capabilities
  • Examines case studies to illustrate the progression of system design and performance from mission to mission and provides a broad overview of the missions systems described
  • Discusses actual flight mission telecom performance of each system

Deep Space Communications serves as a reference for scientists and engineers interested in communications systems for deep-space telecommunications link analysis and design control.

Related Resources

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Contributors xxiii

Chapter 1 Deep Space Communications: An Introduction  1
by Joseph H. Yuen

1.1 Introduction and Overview  1

1.2 Telecommunications Link Analysis  4

1.2.1 Received Power  4

1.2.2 Noise Spectral Density  5

1.2.3 Carrier Performance Margin  6

1.2.4 Telemetry and Command Performance Margins  6

1.2.5 Ranging Performance Margin  7

1.3 Communications Design Control  8

1.3.1 Design Control Tables  8

1.3.2 Design Procedure and Performance Criterion Selection  9

References  12

Chapter 2 The Deep Space Network: A Functional Description  15
by Jim Taylor

2.1 Uplink and Downlink Carrier Operation  17

2.1.1 The 34-m BWG Stations 17

2.1.2 The 70-m (DSS-14 and DSS-43) Stations 19

2.2 Radiometric Data (Doppler and Ranging)  21

2.3 Delta Differential One-Way Ranging  24

2.4 Command Processing and Radiation  25

2.5 Telemetry Demodulation and Decoding  28

2.6 DSN Performance  31

2.6.1 Antenna Gain  32

2.6.2 Transmitter Power 33

2.6.3 System Noise Temperature 33

2.6.4 Thresholds and Limits  33

References  35

Chapter 3 Voyager Telecommunications  37
by Roger Ludwig and Jim Taylor

3.1 Voyager Interstellar Mission Description  37

3.2 Overview of Telecom Functional Capabilities  44

3.2.1 Uplink  46

3.2.2 Downlink  47

3.3 Spacecraft Telecom System Design  48

3.3.1 Spacecraft Telecom System Overview 48

3.3.2 Modulation Demodulation Subsystem  51

3.3.3 Radio Frequency Subsystem  52

3.3.4 S/X-Band Antenna Subsystem  54

3.3.5 Telecom System Input Power and Mass  55

3.4 Telecom Ground System Description  56

3.4.1 Uplink and Downlink Carrier Operation  57

3.4.2 Command Processing  59

3.4.3 Telemetry Processing  59

3.5 Sample Telecom System Performance  60

3.5.1 Design Control Tables  61

3.5.2 Long-Term Planning Predicts  61

3.6 New Spacecraft and Ground Telecom Technology  64

3.6.1 Spacecraft and Telecom Link Design Compared with Previous Missions 64

3.6.2 Spacecraft Improvements for Uranus and Neptune Encounters 64

3.6.3 Ground System Performance Improvements  65

3.6.4 Ground Display and Operability Improvements 68

3.7 Operational Scenarios of the Voyager Interstellar Mission  69

3.7.1 Tracking Coverage 69

3.7.2 RFS Strategies 70

3.7.3 Spacecraft Fault Protection  72

References 74

Additional Resources  76

Chapter 4 Galileo Telecommunications  79
by Jim Taylor, Kar-Ming Cheung, and Dongae Seo

4.1 Mission and Spacecraft Description  79

4.1.1 The Mission  79

4.1.2 The Spacecraft  82

4.2 Galileo Spacecraft Telecommunications System  86

4.2.1 Galileo Telecommunications Functions and Modes 87

4.2.2 Radio Frequency Subsystem  89

4.2.3 Modulation Demodulation Subsystem  90

4.2.4 S-/X-Band Antenna Subsystem  92

4.2.5 X- to S-Band Downconverter  93

4.2.6 Telecom Hardware Performance during Flight 93

4.2.7 Orbiter Input Power and Mass Summary 96

4.3 Galileo S-Band Mission  98

4.3.1 Overview 98

4.3.2 Ground System Improvements for Galileo S-Band Mission 101

4.3.3 Data Compression 103

4.3.4 Galileo Encoding and Feedback Concatenated Decoding 106

4.4 Telecom Link Performance 110

4.4.1 Design Control Tables  111

4.4.2 Long-Term Planning Predicts  112

4.5 Telecom Operational Scenarios 115

4.5.1 Planned and Actual DSN Coverage 115

4.5.2 Launch Phase  115

4.5.3 Cruise Phase  116

4.5.4 HGA Deployment Attempts 118

4.5.5 Probe Separation, Jupiter Cruise, and Jupiter Orbit Insertion 120

4.5.6 Orbital Operational Phase  121

4.5.7 Solar Conjunction  123

4.5.8 Galileo Europa Mission and Galileo Millennium Mission 125

4.6 Probe-to-Orbiter Relay-Link Design  125

4.6.1 Overview 125

4.6.2 Link Requirements and Design  126

4.6.3 Summary of Achieved Relay-Link Performance 128

4.7 Lessons Learned  129

References  131

Chapter 5 Deep Space 1  135
by Jim Taylor, Michela Muñoz Fernández, Ana I. Bolea-Alamañac, and Kar-Ming Cheung

5.1 Mission and Spacecraft Description  136

5.1.1 Technology Validation 136

5.1.2 Mission Overview 137

5.1.3 Telecom Subsystem Overview 138

5.2 Telecom Subsystem Requirements  139

5.3 Telecom System Description  140

5.4 DS1 Telecom Technology  144

5.4.1 Small Deep Space Transponder (SDST)  144

5.4.2 Ka-Band Solid-State Power Amplifier (KaPA) 147

5.4.3 Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment (BMOX) 149

5.4.4 Telecom System Mass and Input Power  153

5.5 Telecom Ground System Description  153

5.5.1 Uplink and Downlink Carrier Operation 154

5.5.2 Radiometric Data (Doppler and Ranging) 154

5.5.3 Command Processing and Radiation 157

5.5.4 Telemetry Demodulation, Decoding, Synchronization, and Display 158

5.6 Telecom Link Performance  161

5.7 Operational Scenarios  173

5.7.1 Launch  173

5.7.2 Safing  174

5.7.3 Anchor Pass (at HGA Earth Point, High Rate) 174

5.7.4 Midweek Pass (at Thrust Attitude for IPS Operation) 175

5.7.5 High-Gain-Antenna Activity (January–June 2000, March 2001) 176

5.7.6 Solar Conjunction  181

5.7.7 Ka-Band Downlink 183

5.8 Lessons Learned  183

5.8.1 Telecom-Related Lessons Learned  183

5.8.2 Project-Level Lessons Learned  188

References  190

Additional Resources  192

Chapter 6 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter  193
by Jim Taylor, Dennis K. Lee, and Shervin Shambayati

6.1 Mission Overview  193

6.2 Mission Phases and Orbit Summary  194

6.2.1 Mission Objectives  194

6.2.2 The MRO Spacecraft 195

6.2.3 Mission Phases  196

6.2.4 The MRO Orbit and Its Relay Coverage for Surface Vehicles 204

6.2.5 MRO Orbit Phasing to Support Landing Vehicle EDL 206

6.3 Telecommunications Subsystem Overview  207

6.3.1 X-Band: Cruise and Orbital Operations  207

6.3.2 UHF: Proximity Relay Communications 219

6.3.3 Ka-Band: Operational Demonstration 227

6.4 Ground Data System  227

6.4.1 Deep Space Network  227

6.4.2 Ka-Band Demonstration Requirements 228

6.4.3 Ground Data Network Flow for Relay Data through Electra 229

6.5 X-Band Telecom Operations  231

6.5.1 Cruise Calibrations 231

6.5.2 MOI Telecom Configurations 231

6.5.3 Aerobraking Telecom Configurations  232

6.5.4 Downlink Telemetry Modulation and Coding 233

6.5.5 Coordinating MRO and MER X-Band Operations 236

6.6 Ka-Band Cruise Verification  240

6.6.1 Ka-Band Operations Overview 240

6.6.2 Ka-Band Link Prediction and Performance during Cruise 240

6.6.3 Ka-Band Communications Demonstration Plans 242

6.6.4 Spacecraft X-Band and Ka-Band Constraints and Operational Factors 243

6.6.5 Delta-DOR X-Band and Ka-Band Operations and Performance 244

6.6.6 Planned Solar Conjunction Experiments  245

6.7 Lessons Learned  246

6.7.1 X-Band  246

6.7.2 Ka-Band  247

6.7.3 UHF  248

References 248

Chapter 7 Mars Exploration Rover Telecommunications  251
by Jim Taylor, Andre Makovsky, Andrea Barbieri, Ramona Tung, Polly Estabrook, and A. Gail Thomas

7.1 Mission and Spacecraft Summary  252

7.1.1 Mission Objectives  252

7.1.2 Mission Description  253

7.1.3 The Spacecraft  255

7.2 Telecommunications Subsystem Overview  261

7.2.1 X-Band: Cruise, EDL, Surface  261

7.2.2 UHF: EDL, Surface 262

7.2.3 Direct-to-Earth Downlink Capability 263

7.2.4 UHF Relay Capability 263

7.3 Telecom Subsystem Hardware and Software  267

7.3.1 X-Band Flight Subsystem Description  267

7.3.2 UHF  280

7.3.3 MER Telecom Hardware Mass and Power Summary 285

7.4 Ground Systems 285

7.4.1 Deep Space Network  285

7.4.2 Entry, Descent, and Landing Communications  291

7.4.3 Relay Data Flow 296

7.5 Telecom Subsystem and Link Performance  299

7.5.1 X-Band: Cruise, EDL, and Surface 299

7.5.2 UHF: EDL and Primary Mission Surface Operations 322

7.6 Lessons Learned  336

7.6.1 What Could Serve as a Model for the Future  337

7.6.2 What Could Be Improved 344

7.7 Beyond the Extended Mission  355

7.7.1 Spirit  355

7.7.2 Opportunity  356

References 356

Chapter 8 Mars Science Laboratory  359
by Andre Makovsky, Peter Ilott, and Jim Taylor

8.1 Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Spacecraft

Summary  359

8.1.1 Mission Description  362

8.1.2 Launch/Arrival Period Selection  364

8.1.3 Launch Phase and Initial Acquisition  370

8.1.4 Cruise Phase  381

8.1.5 Approach Phase  384

8.1.6 EDL Phase  385

8.1.7 Flight System Description  400

8.2 Telecom Subsystem Overview  407

8.2.1 Telecom for Launch, Cruise, and into EDL  412

8.2.2 Surface Operations  413

8.2.3 X-Band Flight Subsystem Description  415

8.2.4 UHF Flight Subsystem Description  441

8.2.5 Terminal Descent Sensor (Landing Radar) Description 454

8.2.6 MSL Telecom Hardware Mass and Power Summary 457

8.3 Ground Systems EDL Operations: EDL Data Analysis (EDA) 459

8.4 Telecom Subsystem Link Performance  460

8.4.1 X-Band  460

8.4.2 UHF  474

8.5 Surface Operations (Plans)  481

8.5.1 Mission Operations System Approach  481

8.5.2 Initial Surface Ground Operations  482

8.5.3 Tactical Operations after First 90 Sols 484

8.5.4 UHF Telecom Constraints 484

8.6 Surface Operations (Characterized in Flight)  488

8.6.1 Mitigating the Effects of Electromagnetic Interference  489

8.6.2 Data Volume Achieved with MRO and Odyssey Links 489

8.6.3 Relay Link Models 491

References  494

Acronyms and Abbreviations 499

About the Companion Website 523

Index 525