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In 1760 no polity in the world was democratic in any way we would now recognize. In 1995 there were democratic states on every continent and in every region. The struggle to create, sustain, and entrench democratic political systems is one of the central narratives of modernity. Democratization is the first textbook comprehensively to survey, explore and engage with this story.

In Part I, the introduction to the book as a whole, an overview and elaboration is offered of the key explanatory models of democratization; this section also refines the description of a regime's democratic status and explores the models and strategies of comparative analysis used in the book. While each of the subsequent twenty chapters can stand on their own, they have all been framed by a shared engagement with and discussion of the dynamics of democratization set out here.

Part II surveys the course of democratization in the West from 1760 to 1989, examining both the early breakthroughs of the French and American Revolutions and the inter-war crisis of European democracy. The post-war era is covered by discussions of the impact of World War II, the democratic revolutions in Southern Europe and the struggle of the American Civil Rights movement.

Part III examines the experience of Latin America and Asia. The Latin American case is covered in two chapters stretching from the 1930's to the 1990's. In the Asia section the comparative trajectories of Asia's two giants - China and India - are contrasted with the experience of East Asia's original tigers (Taiwan and South Korea) and more recent industrializing states (Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia).

In Part IV the relative weakness of democratization in Africa and the Middle East is interrogated. Surveys of the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa are complemented by individual case studies (Israel-Palestine and South Africa) and a synoptic examination of the relationship between Islamic culture, society and democracy.

In Part V, the democratic revolutions of 1989 and their aftermath are examined in chapters on Eastern Europe and Russia. The enmeshment of these processes of democratization with nationalist struggles are highlighted in a study of former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia while the particular course of the remaining socialist states is examined in a chapter on Vietnam.

Finally, the conclusion both reviews the regional variations in democratization and considers the pressing question of how democracies once created can be sustained.

Democratization will provide students and teachers with an invaluable and engaging resource for examining the complex fate of democratic politics across the world.


Part I: Framework for Analysis: .

1. Explaining Democratization: David Potter.

Part II: Europe and the USA: .


2. Democracy in the 'long nineteenth century': 1760-1919: David Goldblatt.

3. The Crisis of Modern Democracy, 1919-45: Richard Bessel.

4. Democracy in Europe: 1939-89: David Goldblatt.

5. Democracy in the USA Since 1945: Richard Maidment.


Part III: Latin America and Asia:.


6. Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-80: Paul Cammack.

7. Democratization in Latin America, 1980-95: Walter Little.

8. Why have the Political Trajectories of Inda and China been Different?: Vicky Randall.

9. Democratization at the Same Time in South Korea and Taiwan.

10. Why has Democratization been a Weaker Impulse in Indonesia and Malaysia than in the Philippines?: James Putzel.


Part IV: Africa and the Middle East: .


11. The Rise and Fall and Rise (and Fall?) of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa: John A. Wiseman.

12. South Africa: Democracy Delayed: Margaret Kiloh.

13. Middle East Exceptionalism - Myth or Reality?: Simon Bromley.

14. Islam and Democracy: Nazih N. Ayubi.

15. Israel: Constraints on Consolidation: Michael Dumper.


Part V: Communist and Post-Communist Countries: .


16. Democratization in Eastern Europe.

17. Asia's Troubled Transition: Stephen White.

18. Political Participation in Post-Communist Democracies: Paul Lewis.

19. Nationalism, Community and Democratic Transition in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

20. Political Change in Vietnam: Martin Gainsborough.


Part VI: Conclusion: .

21. From Democratization to Democratic Consolidation: Adrian Leftwich.



"The first comprehensive textbook to address this central political phenomenon." The Times Higher Education Supplement

"A fine array of specialist contributors ... especially welcome to see these issues presented clearly and without jargon." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics

"A significant contribution to the academic study of the causes and process of democratization ... the contributing authors achieve a high degree of clarity without sacrificing theoretical and analytical depth." Democratization

* An Open University set text.
* A comprehensive introduction to the processes of democratization.
* Both historical in orientation and comparative in method. Wide-ranging case studies from the world's major regions are included and discussed in a highly accessible form.
* Specially written for students; while each chapter can be read on its own, the whole text is integrated in terms of style, method, text guide posts, and teaching concerns.
* An important and unique resource for teaching comparative politics, political sociology, and the study of the evolution of democracy.