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Design and Application of Modern Synchronous Generator Excitation Systems

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Design and Application of Modern Synchronous Generator Excitation Systems

Jicheng Li

ISBN: 978-1-118-84105-1 March 2019 Wiley-IEEE Press 680 Pages

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Description

Uses real world case studies to present the key technologies of design and application of the synchronous generator excitation system

This book systematically introduces the important technologies of design and application of the synchronous generator excitation system, including the three-phase bridge rectifier circuit, diode rectifier for separate excitation, brushless excitation system and the static self-stimulation excitation system. It fuses discussions on specific topics and basic theories, providing a detailed description of the theories essential for synchronous generators in the analysis of excitation systems.

Design and Application of Modern Synchronous Generator Excitation Systems provides a cutting-edge examination of excitation system, addressing conventional hydro-turbines, pumped storage units, steam turbines, and nuclear power units. It looks at the features and performance of the excitation system of the 700MW hydro-turbine deployed at the Three Gorges Hydropower Plant spanning the Yangtze River in China, as well as the working principle and start-up procedure of the static frequency converter (SFC) of pumped storage units. It also expounds on the composition of the excitation transformer, power rectifier, de-excitation equipment, and automatic excitation regulator—in addition to the performance features of the excitation system of conventional 600/1000MW turbines and the excitation system of the 1000MW nuclear power unit.

  • Presents cutting-edge technologies of the excitation system from a unique engineering perspective
  • Offers broad appeal to power system engineers who require a better understanding of excitation systems
  • Addresses hydro-turbines, pumped storage units, steam turbines, and nuclear power units
  • Provides an interdisciplinary examination of a range of applications
  • Written by a senior expert in the area of excitation systems

Written by an author with over 50 years' experience, Design and Application of Modern Synchronous Generator Excitation Systems is an excellent text that offers an interdisciplinary exposition for professionals, researchers, and academics alike. 

About the Author xxi

Foreword xxiii

Preface xxvii

Introduction xxix

Acknowledgement xxxi

1 Evolution and Development of Excitation Control 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Evolution of Excitation Control 1

1.3 Linear Multivariable Total Controller 11

1.4 Nonlinear Multivariable Excitation Controller 20

1.5 Power System Voltage Regulator (PSVR) 25

2 Characteristics of Synchronous Generator 35

2.1 Electromotive Force Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator 35

2.2 Electromagnetic Power and Power Angle Characteristic of Synchronous Generator 38

2.3 Operating Capacity Characteristic Curve of Synchronous Generator 41

2.4 Influence of External Reactance on Operating Capacity Characteristic Curve 45

2.5 Operating Characteristic Curves of Generator 50

2.6 Transient Characteristics of Synchronous Generator 54

3 Effect of Excitation Regulation on Power System Stability 67

3.1 Definition and Classification of Power System Stability 67

3.2 Criterion of Stability Level 68

3.3 Effects of Excitation Regulation on Power System Stability 68

4 Static and Transient State Characteristics of Excitation Systems 77

4.1 Static Characteristics of Excitation System 77

4.2 Ratio and Coefficient of Generator Voltage to Reactive Current of Generator 81

4.3 Transient State Characteristics of Excitation System 87

4.4 Stability Analysis of Excitation System 94

5 Control Law and Mathematical Model of Excitation System 97

5.1 Basic Control Law of Excitation System 97

5.2 Mathematical Model of the Excitation System 108

5.3 Mathematical Model of Excitation Control Unit 118

5.4 Parameter Setting of Excitation System 124

6 Basic Characteristics of Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier Circuit 137

6.1 Overview 137

6.2 Operating Principle of Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier 137

6.3 Type I Commutation State 139

6.4 Commutation Angle 144

6.5 Average Rectified Voltage 144

6.6 Instantaneous Rectified Voltage Value 147

6.7 Effective Element Current Value 147

6.8 Fundamental Wave and Harmonic Value for Alternating Current 152

6.9 Power Factor of Rectifying Device 156

6.10 Type III Commutation State 161

6.11 Type II Commutation State 167

6.12 External Characteristic Curve for Rectifier 168

6.13 Operating Principle of Three-Phase Bridge Inverter Circuit 170

7 Excitation System for Separately Excited Static Diode Rectifier 175

7.1 Harmonic Analysis for Alternating Current 175

7.2 Non-distortion Sinusoidal Potential and Equivalent Commutating Reactance 177

7.3 Expression for Commutation Angle γ, Load Resistance rf, and Commutating Reactance Xγ 182

7.4 Rectified Voltage Ratio 𝛽u and Rectified Current Ratio 𝛽i 184

7.5 Steady-State Calculations for AC Exciter with Rectifier Load 186

7.6 General External Characteristics of Exciter 189

7.7 Transient State Process of AC Exciter with Rectifier Load 191

7.8 Simplified Transient Mathematical Model of AC Exciter with Rectifier Load 193

7.9 Transient State Process of Excitation System in Case of Small Deviation Change in Generator Excitation Current 196

7.10 Influence of Diode Rectifier on Time Constant of Generator Excitation Loop 200

7.11 Excitation Voltage Response for AC Exciter with Rectifier Load 201

7.12 Short-Circuit Current Calculations for AC Exciter 205

7.13 Calculations for AC Rated Parameters and Forced Excitation Parameters 211

8 Brushless Excitation System 215

8.1 Evolution of Brushless Excitation System 215

8.2 Technical Specifications for Brushless Excitation System 219

8.3 Composition of Brushless Excitation System 221

8.4 Voltage Response Characteristics of AC Exciter 224

8.5 Control Characteristics of Brushless Excitation System 227

8.6 Mathematical Models for Brushless Excitation System 232

8.7 AC2 Model 243

8.8 Generator Excitation Parameter Detection and Fault Alarm 246

9 Separately Excited SCR Excitation System 255

9.1 Overview 255

9.2 Characteristics of Separately Excited SCR Excitation System 255

9.3 Influence of Harmonic Current Load on Electromagnetic Characteristics of Auxiliary Generator 260

9.4 Parameterization of Separately Excited SCR Excitation System 268

9.5 Separately Excited SCR Excitation System with High-/Low-Voltage Bridge Rectifier 272

9.6 Parameterization of High-/Low-Voltage Bridge Rectifier 276

9.7 Transient Process of Separately Excited SCR Excitation System 281

10 Static Self-Excitation System 285

10.1 Overview 285

10.2 Characteristics of Static Self-Excitation System 288

10.3 Shaft Voltage of Static Self-Excitation System 307

10.4 Coordination between Low Excitation Restriction and Loss-of-Excitation Protection 311

10.5 Electric Braking of Steam Turbine 321

10.6 Electric Braking Application Example at Pumped-Storage Power Station 326

11 Automatic Excitation Regulator 329

11.1 Overview 329

11.2 Theoretical Basis of Digital Control 330

11.3 Digital Sampling and Signal Conversion 337

11.4 Control Operation 340

11.5 Per-Unit Value Setting 345

11.6 Digital Phase Shift Trigger 346

11.7 External Characteristics of Three-Phase Fully Controlled Bridge Rectifier Circuit 348

11.8 Characteristics of Digital Excitation Systems 351

12 Excitation Transformer 365

12.1 Overview 365

12.2 Structural Characteristics of Resin Cast Dry-Type Excitation Transformer 367

12.3 Application Characteristics of Resin Cast Dry-Type Excitation Transformer 369

12.4 Specification for Resin Cast Dry-Type Excitation Transformer 369

12.5 Harmonic Current Analysis 389

13 Power Rectifier 395

13.1 Specification and Essential Parameters for Thyristor Rectifier Elements 395

13.2 Parameterization of Power Rectifier 400

13.3 Cooling of Large-Capacity Power Rectifier 407

13.4 Current Sharing of Power Rectifier 413

13.5 Protection of Power Rectifier 416

13.6 Thyristor Damage and Failure 429

13.7 Capacity of Power Rectifiers Operating in Parallel 433

13.8 Uncertainty of Parallel Operation of Double-Bridge Power Rectifiers 437

13.9 Five-Pole Disconnector of Power Rectifier 439

14 De-excitation and Rotor Overvoltage Protection of Synchronous Generator 441

14.1 Overview 441

14.2 Evaluation of Performance of De-excitation System 443

14.3 De-excitation System Classification 447

14.4 Influence of Saturation on De-excitation 463

14.5 Influence of Damping Winding Circuit on De-excitation 465

14.6 Field Circuit Breaker 467

14.7 Performance Characteristics of Nonlinear De-excitation Resistor 477

15 Excitation System Performance Characteristics of Hydropower Generator Set 485

15.1 Overview 485

15.2 Static Self-Excitation System of Xiangjiaba Hydro Power Station 485

16 Functional Characteristics of Excitation Control and Starting System of Reversible Pumped Storage Unit 521

16.1 Overview 521

16.2 Operation Mode and Excitation Control of Pumped Storage Unit 521

16.3 Application Example of Excitation System of Pumped Storage Unit 525

16.4 Working Principle of SFC 542

16.5 SFC Current and Speed Dual Closed-Loop Control System 560

16.6 Influence of SFC Start Current Harmonic Components on Power Station and Power System 562

16.7 Local Control Unit (LCU) Control Procedure for Pumped Storage Unit 566

16.8 Pumped Storage Unit Operating as Synchronous Condenser 568

16.9 De-excitation System of Pumped Storage Unit 569

16.10 Electric Braking of Pumped Storage Unit 572

16.11 Shaft Current Protection of Pumped Storage Unit 574

16.12 Application Characteristics of PSS of Pumped Storage Unit 577

17 Performance Characteristics of Excitation System of 1000 MW Turbine Generator Unit 579

17.1 Introduction of Excitation System of Turbine Generator of Malaysian Manjung 4 Thermal Power Station 579

17.2 Key Parameters of Turbine Generator Unit and Excitation System 581

17.3 Parameter Calculation of Main Components of Excitation System 585

17.4 Block Diagram of Automatically Regulated Excitation System 592

18 Performance Characteristics of 1000 MW Nuclear Power Steam Turbine Excitation System 601

18.1 Performance Characteristics of Steam Turbine Generator Brushless Excitation System of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station 601

18.2 Structural Characteristics of Brushless Excitation System 608

18.3 Analysis of Working State of Multi-Phase Brushless Exciter 612

18.4 Calculation of Excitation System Parameters of Fuqing Nuclear Power Station 618

18.5 Static Excitation System of Sanmen Nuclear Power Station 624

References 639

Index 643