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Design and Installation of Marine Pipelines

Design and Installation of Marine Pipelines

Mikael Braestrup, Jan B. Andersen, Lars Wahl Andersen, Mads B. Bryndum, Niels-J Rishøj Nielsen

ISBN: 978-1-405-14874-0

Feb 2009, Wiley-Blackwell

384 pages

Select type: E-Book

$175.99

Description

This comprehensive handbook on submarine pipeline systems covers a broad spectrum of topics from planning and site investigations, procurement and design, to installation and commissioning. It considers guidelines for the choice of design parameters, calculation methods and construction procedures. It is based on limit state design with partial safety coefficients.
Preface.

About the authors.

Glossary and notation.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION.

Chapter 2 BASES FOR DESIGN.

2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Basic Requirements; 2.2.1 Functional Requirements; 2.2.2 Authorities’ Requirements; 2.2.3 Environmental Impact; 2.3 Flow Calculations; 2.3.1 General; 2.3.2 Operational Parameters; 2.3.3 Pipeline Size Determination; 2.3.4 Flow Simulations; 2.4 Site Investigations; 2.4.1 General; 2.4.2 Geophysical Survey; 2.4.3 Geotechnical Survey; 2.4.4 Soil Sampling and In-situ Testing; 2.4.5 Laboratory Testing; 2.5 Meteo-Marine Data; 2.5.1 General; 2.5.2 Wind, Waves and Current; 2.5.3 Collection of Wave Data; 2.5.4 Design parameters; 2.6 Route Selection; 2.6.1 General; 2.6.2 Alignment Sheets.

Chapter 3 MATERIALS.

3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Soil Materials; 3.2.1 General; 3.2.2 Seabed Soil Classification; 3.2.3 Backfill Materials; 3.3 Linepipe Materials; 3.3.1 General; 3.3.2 Strength, Toughness and Weldability; 3.3.3 Sour Service Resistance; 3.3.4 Steel Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance; 3.4 Sacrificial Anodes; 3.4.1 General; 3.4.2 Zinc Alloy; 3.4.3 Aluminium Alloy; 3.5 Pipeline Component Materials; 3.5.1 General; 3.5.2 Component Materials for Sour Service; 3.6 Coating and Insulation Materials; 3.6.1 General; 3.6.2 Material Properties.

Chapter 4 LOADS.

4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Functional Loads; 4.2.1 General; 4.2.2 Internal Pressure; 4.2.3 Pressure Control Systems; 4.2.4 Temperature; 4.3 Environmental Loads; 4.3.1 General; 4.3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces; 4.3.3 Hydrodynamic Force Coefficients; 4.4 Accidental Loads; 4.4.1 General; 4.4.2 Dropped Object Loads; 4.4.3 Trawl Loads; 4.5 Installation Loads.

Chapter 5 RISK AND SAFETY.

5.1 Introduction;5.2 Safety Policy and Philosophy;5.3 Risk Management.

5.3.1 General;5.3.2 Hazard Identification;5.4 Risk Acceptance Criteria;5.4.1 General;5.4.2 Cost Benefit Analysis; 5.5 Risk Assessment;5.5.1 General;5.5.2 Risk Reducing Measures;5.5.3 Example: Risk of Anchor Damage;5.6 Special Risk Aspects;5.6.1 Subsea Isolations Valves;5.6.2 Flanged vs Welded Connections;5.6.3 Corrosion in HP/HT Pipelines; 5.7 Statistical Data.

Chapter 6 DESIGN.

6.1 Design Conditions;6.1.1 Codes and Standards; 6.1.2 Serviceability Limit States (SLS); 6.1.3 Ultimate Limit States (ULS);6.1.4 Partial Safety Coefficients;6.2 Wall Thickness Determination; 6.2.1 General; 6.2.2 Design Methods; 6.2.3 Location Class Definition; 6.2.4 Wall Thickness According to DNV OS-F101; 6.2.5 Code Comparison and National Wall Thickness Regulations; 6.2.6 Trawling and Hydrostatic Pressure; 6.2.7 Wall Thickness Design Example; 6.3 Hydrodynamic Stability; 6.3.1 General; 6.3.2 Design Activities; 6.3.3 Design Conditions and Requirements; 6.3.4 Static Stability Design Format; 6.3.5 Dynamic Stability Design Format; 6.3.6 Pipe-Soil Interaction; 6.4 Free Span Evaluation; 6.4.1 General; 6.4.2 Free Span Classification; 6.4.3 Pipeline and Free Span Data; 6.4.4 Static Analysis; 6.4.5 Dynamic Analysis; 6.4.6 Fatigue Analysis; 6.5 Expansion and Global Buckling; 6.5.1 General; 6.5.2 Pipeline Expansion ; 6.5.3 Pipeline Buckling; 6.5.4 Upheaval Buckling; 6.6 Corrosion Prevention and Insulation; 6.6.1 General; 6.6.2 Corrosion of Steel in Seawater; 6.6.3 Internal Corrosion Prevention; 6.6.4 External Barrier Coating; 6.6.5 Thermal Insulation; 6.7 Cathodic Protection; 6.7.1 General; 6.7.2 Protective Potential and Current Requirements; 6.7.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement; 6.7.4 Sacrificial Anode Design; 6.7.5 Impressed Current; 6.7.6 Electrical Isolation; 6.7.7 Stray Current Interference; 6.8 Bends, Components and Structures; 6.8.1 General; 6.8.2 Fittings; 6.8.3 Valves and Other Components; 6.8.4 Structures.

Chapter 7 FABRICATION.

7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Linepipe Production; 7.2.1 General; 7.2.2 Standardisation; 7.2.3 Seamless Pipe; 7.2.4 Welded Pipes; 7.2.5 Specified Properties of Linepipe Steels; 7.2.6 Hot Formed Bends; 7.2.7 Cladding, Lining and Weld-Overlaying; 7.2.8 Testing During Pipe Manufacture; 7.3 Internal Coating; 7.3.1 General; 7.3.2 Surface Preparation; 7.3.3 Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE); 7.3.4 Epoxy Paint; 7.3.5 Inspection and Testing of Epoxy Paint; 7.4 External Anti-Corrosion Coating; 7.4.1 General; 7.4.2 Surface Preparation; 7.4.3 Asphalt Enamel; 7.4.4 Three-Layer Polyolefin Coatings (PE/PU/PP); 7.4.5 Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE); 7.4.6 Elastomer Coating (Neoprene); 7.4.7 Thermal Insulation; 7.4.8 Inspection and Testing; 7.4.9 Other Coating Systems; 7.5 Anode Manufacture; 7.5.1 General; 7.5.2 Reinforcement Insert; 7.5.3 Alloy Materials; 7.5.4 Casting; 7.5.5 Anode Defects; 7.5.6 Electrical Connections; 7.5.7 Painting and Marking; 7.5.8 Inspection and Testing; 7.6 Anode Installation; 7.6.1 General; 7.6.2 Anode Mounting; 7.6.2 Electrical Connection; 7.6.3 Finishing; 7.7 Concrete Coating; 7.7.1 General;7.7.2 Concrete Mix Design; 7.7.3 Reinforcement; 7.7.4 Impingement; 7.7.5 Extrusion; 7.7.6 Slipforming; 7.7.7 Concrete Curing; 7.7.8 Inspection and Testing; 7.7.9 Anode Joints; 7.8 Marking, Handling and Repair; 7.8.1 General; 7.8.2 Marking; 7.8.3 Handling, Transport and Storage; 7.8.4 Repair; 7.9 Components and Fittings; 7.9.1 General; 7.9.2 Component Manufacture; 7.9.3 Risers and Expansion Offsets; 7.9.4 Tees and Valve Assemblies; 7.9.5 Pig Launchers and Receiver.

Chapter 8 INSTALLATION.

8.1 Introduction; 8.2 Seabed Intervention; 8.2.1 General; 8.2.2 Pre-Trenching; 8.2.3 Pipeline Supports; 8.2.4 Crossings; 8.3 Pipe Assembly; 8.3.1 General; 8.3.2 Girth Welding; 8.3.3 Engineering Criticality Assessment (ECA); 8.3.4 Field Joint Coating; 8.3.5 Mechanical Connections; 8.4 Pipelaying; 8.4.1 General; 8.4.2 S-Lay; 8.4.3 J-Lay; 8.4.4 Reeling; 8.4.5 Piggy-Back Installation; 8.4.6 In-Line Components; 8.4.7 Abandonment and Recovery; 8.5 Towing, Pulling and Directional Drilling; 8.5.1 General; 8.5.2 On-Bottom Towing and Pulling; 8.5.3 Off-Bottom, Surface and Controlled Depth Towing; 8.5.4 Pipeline Bundles; 8.5.5 Directional Drilling; 8.6 Risers, Shore Approaches and Tie-ins; 8.6.1 General; 8.6.2 Riser Installation; 8.6.3 Shore Approach Construction; 8.6.4 Tie-in; 8.6.5 Branch line connection; 8.7 Trenching and Backfilling; 8.7.1 General; 8.7.2 Jetting and Cutting; 8.7.3 Ploughing; 8.7.4 Artificial Backfilling; 8.7.5 Protective Covers ; 8.8 Pre-Commissioning; 8.8.1 General; 8.8.2 Flooding and Hydrotesting; 8.8.3 Gauging; 8.8.4 Cleaning; 8.8.5 De-watering; 8.8.6 Drying; 8.8.7 Nitrogen Purging.

Chapter 9 CONTROL AND DOCUMENTATION.

9.1 Introduction; 9.2 General Requirements; 9.2.1 General; 9.2.2 Quality management; 9.2.3 Document Formats; 9.2.4 Communication; 9.2.5 Document Register; 9.2.6 Document Review and Acceptance; 9.2.7 Nonconforming Items; 9.3 Design; 9.3.1 Design Basis; 9.3.2 Design Documentation; 9.3.3 Design Drawings; 9.4 Supply and Fabrication; 9.4.1 General; 9.4.2 Pipe Production; 9.4.3 Anode Manufacture; 9.4.4 Pipe Coating; 9.4.5 Other Supplies; 9.5 Installation; 9.5.1 General; 9.5.2 Installation Manuals; 9.5.3 Contractor’s Engineering and Management; 9.5.4 Installation Procedures; 9.5.5 Construction Reporting; 9.6 As-Built Documentation; 9.6.1 General; 9.6.2 Pipeline Management Systems; 9.6.3 Contractor’s engineering and management; 9.6.4 Installation procedures; 9.6.5 Construction reporting.

Chapter 10 FLEXIBLE PIPELINES.

10.1 Introduction;10.1.1 General; 10.1.2 The World’s First Subsea Flexible Pipes; 10.1.3 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Specification; 10.2 Flexible Pipe Structure; 10.2.1 General; 10.2.2 Internal Carcass; 10.2.3 Inner Liner; 10.2.4 Pressure Armour; 10.2.5 Tensile Armour; 10.2.6 Holding Bandage; 10.2.7 Outer Sheath; 10.2.8 Additional Layers; 10.3 Flexible Pipe Design; 10.3.1 General; 10.3.2 Load Conditions; 10.3.3 Cross-Sectional Design; 10.3.4 End Fitting; 10.3.5 System Design; 10.3.6 Service Life Analysis; 10.4 Material Qualification; 10.4.1 General; 10.4.2 Metallic Materials ;10.4.3 Polymeric Materials ;10.4.4 Epoxy Resin; 10.4.5 Fibre-Reinforced Polymers; 10.5 Fabrication; 10.5.1 General; 10.5.2 Pipe; 10.5.3 End Fitting; 10.5.4 Factory Acceptance Test; 10.5.5 Packing and Load out; 10.6 Installation and Pipe Qualification; 10.6.1 Installation; 10.6.2 Flexible Pipe Qualification; 10.6.3 Prototype Testing.

Chapter 11 OPERATION.

11.1 Introduction; 11.2 Flow Assurance; 11.2.1 General; 11.2.2 Mitigation of Flow Blockage; 11.3 Operation, Maintenance and Abandonment; 11.3.1 General; 11.3.2 Commissioning and Operation; 11.3.3 Maintenance; 11.3.4 Changes to the Design Condition; 11.3.5 Decommissioning and Abandonment; 11.3.6 Pipeline Pigging; 11.4 In-service Inspection; 11.4.1 General; 11.4.2 Start-up Inspection; 11.4.3 Periodical Inspection; 11.5 Repair Assessment; 11.5.1 General; Pipe Defects.

Bibliography and references.

Author index.

Subject index

'The book is easy to read and concise with adequate supporting documentation wherever necessary. The authors have made a comprehensive presentation that the subject unfolds itself and develops smoothly from the beginning till the end that even engineers who are new to the field can easily get a comprehensive overview of the subject. Hence, this book will be useful to students specializing in offshore studies, nd also for practising engineers as a handy reference book.'

Journal of Structural Engineering, June/ July 2005

* brings together extensive data currently scattered throughout a large number of publications
* draws on the extensive experience of a group of practitioners
* features practical case studies