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Design for Reliability

Design for Reliability

Dev G. Raheja (Editor), Louis J. Gullo (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-48675-7

Aug 2012

336 pages

In Stock



A unique, design-based approach to reliability engineering

Design for Reliability provides engineers and managers with a range of tools and techniques for incorporating reliability into the design process for complex systems. It clearly explains how to design for zero failure of critical system functions, leading to enormous savings in product life-cycle costs and a dramatic improvement in the ability to compete in global markets.

Readers will find a wealth of design practices not covered in typical engineering books, allowing them to think outside the box when developing reliability requirements. They will learn to address high failure rates associated with systems that are not properly designed for reliability, avoiding expensive and time-consuming engineering changes, such as excessive testing, repairs, maintenance, inspection, and logistics.

Special features of this book include:

  • A unified approach that integrates ideas from computer science and reliability engineering
  • Techniques applicable to reliability as well as safety, maintainability, system integration, and logistic engineering
  • Chapters on design for extreme environments, developing reliable software, design for trustworthiness, and HALT influence on design

Design for Reliability is a must-have guide for engineers and managers in R&D, product development, reliability engineering, product safety, and quality assurance, as well as anyone who needs to deliver high product performance at a lower cost while minimizing system failure.

Contributors xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Introduction: What You Will Learn xix

1 Design for Reliability Paradigms 1
Dev Raheja

Why Design for Reliability? 1

Reflections on the Current State of the Art 2

The Paradigms for Design for Reliability 4

Summary 13

References 13

2 Reliability Design Tools 15
Joseph A. Childs

Introduction 15

Reliability Tools 19

Test Data Analysis 31

Summary 34

References 35

3 Developing Reliable Software 37
Samuel Keene

Introduction and Background 37

Software Reliability: Definitions and Basic Concepts 40

Software Reliability Design Considerations 44

Operational Reliability Requires Effective Change Management 48

Execution-Time Software Reliability Models 48

Software Reliability Prediction Tools Prior to Testing 49

References 51

4 Reliability Models 53
Louis J. Gullo

Introduction 53

Reliability Block Diagram: System Modeling 56

Example of System Reliability Models Using RBDs 57

Reliability Growth Model 60

Similarity Analysis and Categories of a Physical Model 60

Monte Carlo Models 62

Markov Models 62

References 64

5 Design Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis 67
Louis J. Gullo

Introduction to FMEA and FMECA 67

Design FMECA 68

Principles of FMECA-MA 71

Design FMECA Approaches 72

Example of a Design FMECA Process 74

Risk Priority Number 82

Final Thoughts 86

References 86

6 Process Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis 87
Joseph A. Childs

Introduction 87

Principles of P-FMECA 87

Use of P-FMECA 88

What Is Required Before Starting 90

Performing P-FMECA Step by Step 91

Improvement Actions 98

Reporting Results 100

Suggestions for Additional Reading 101

7 FMECA Applied to Software Development 103
Robert W. Stoddard

Introduction 103

Scoping an FMECA for Software Development 104

FMECA Steps for Software Development 106

Important Notes on Roles and Responsibilities with Software FMECA 116

Lessons Learned from Conducting Software FMECA 117

Conclusions 119

References 120

8 Six Sigma Approach to Requirements Development 121
Samuel Keene

Early Experiences with Design of Experiments 121

Six Sigma Foundations 124

The Six Sigma Three-Pronged Initiative 126

The RASCI Tool 128

Design for Six Sigma 129

Requirements Development: The Principal Challenge to System Reliability 130

The GQM Tool 131

The Mind Mapping Tool 132

References 135

9 Human Factors in Reliable Design 137
Jack Dixon

Human Factors Engineering 137

A Design Engineer’s Interest in Human Factors 138

Human-Centered Design 138

Human Factors Analysis Process 144

Human Factors and Risk 150

Human Error 150

Design for Error Tolerance 153

Checklists 154

Testing to Validate Human Factors in Design 154

References 154

10 Stress Analysis During Design to Eliminate Failures 157
Louis J. Gullo

Principles of Stress Analysis 157

Mechanical Stress Analysis or Durability Analysis 158

Finite Element Analysis 158

Probabilistic vs. Deterministic Methods and Failures 159

How Stress Analysis Aids Design for Reliability 159

Derating and Stress Analysis 160

Stress vs. Strength Curves 161

Software Stress Analysis and Testing 166

Structural Reinforcement to Improve Structural Integrity 167

References 167

11 Highly Accelerated Life Testing 169
Louis J. Gullo

Introduction 169

Time Compression 173

Test Coverage 174

Environmental Stresses of HALT 175

Sensitivity to Stresses 176

Design Margin 178

Sample Size 180

Conclusions 180

Reference 181

12 Design for Extreme Environments 183
Steven S. Austin

Overview 183

Designing for Extreme Environments 183

Designing for Cold 184

Designing for Heat 186

References 191

13 Design for Trustworthiness 193
Lawrence Bernstein and C. M. Yuhas

Introduction 193

Modules and Components 196

Politics of Reuse 200

Design Principles 201

Design Constraints That Make Systems Trustworthy 204

Conclusions 210

References and Notes 211

14 Prognostics and Health Management Capabilities to Improve Reliability 213
Louis J. Gullo

Introduction 213

PHM Is Department of Defense Policy 216

Condition-Based Maintenance vs. Time-Based Maintenance 216

Monitoring and Reasoning of Failure Precursors 217

Monitoring Environmental and Usage Loads for Damage Modeling 218

Fault Detection, Fault Isolation, and Prognostics 218

Sensors for Automatic Stress Monitoring 220

References 221

15 Reliability Management 223
Joseph A. Childs

Introduction 223

Planning, Execution, and Documentation 229

Closing the Feedback Loop: Reliability Assessment, Problem Solving, and Growth 232

References 233

16 Risk Management, Exception Handling, and Change Management 235
Jack Dixon

Introduction to Risk 235

Importance of Risk Management 236

Why Many Risks Are Overlooked 237

Program Risk 239

Design Risk 241

Risk Assessment 242

Risk Identification 243

Risk Estimation 244

Risk Evaluation 245

Risk Mitigation 247

Risk Communication 248

Risk and Competitiveness 249

Risk Management in the Change Process 249

Configuration Management 249

References 251

17 Integrating Design for Reliability with Design for Safety 253
Brian Moriarty

Introduction 253

Start of Safety Design 254

Reliability in System Safety Design 255

Safety Analysis Techniques 255

Establishing Safety Assessment Using the Risk Assessment Code Matrix 260

Design and Development Process for Detailed Safety Design 261

Verification of Design for Safety Includes Reliability 261

Examples of Design for Safety with Reliability Data 262

Final Thoughts 266

References 266

18 Organizational Reliability Capability Assessment 267
Louis J. Gullo

Introduction 267

The Benefits of IEEE 1624-2008 269

Organizational Reliability Capability 270

Reliability Capability Assessment 271

Design Capability and Performability 271

IEEE 1624 Scoring Guidelines 276

SEI CMMI Scoring Guidelines 277

Organizational Reliability Capability Assessment Process 278

Advantages of High Reliability 282

Conclusions 283

References 284

Index 285