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Design for Safety

Design for Safety

Louis J. Gullo, Jack Dixon

ISBN: 978-1-118-97433-9

Dec 2017

520 pages

Description

A one-stop reference guide to design for safety principles and applications

Design for Safety (DfSa) provides design engineers and engineering managers with a range of tools and techniques for incorporating safety into the design process for complex systems. It explains how to design for maximum safe conditions and minimum risk of accidents. The book covers safety design practices, which will result in improved safety, fewer accidents, and substantial savings in life cycle costs for producers and users. Readers who apply DfSa principles can expect to have a dramatic improvement in the ability to compete in global markets. They will also find a wealth of design practices not covered in typical engineering books—allowing them to think outside the box when developing safety requirements.

Design Safety is already a high demand field due to its importance to system design and will be even more vital for engineers in multiple design disciplines as more systems become increasingly complex and liabilities increase. Therefore, risk mitigation methods to design systems with safety features are becoming more important. Designing systems for safety has been a high priority for many safety-critical systems—especially in the aerospace and military industries. However, with the expansion of technological innovations into other market places, industries that had not previously considered safety design requirements are now using the technology in applications.

Design for Safety

  • Covers trending topics and the latest technologies
  • Provides ten paradigms for managing and designing systems for safety and uses them as guiding themes throughout the book
  • Logically defines the parameters and concepts, sets the safety program and requirements, covers basic methodologies, investigates lessons from history, and addresses specialty topics within the topic of Design for Safety (DfSa)
  • Supplements other books in the series on Quality and Reliability Engineering

Design for Safety is an ideal book for new and experienced engineers and managers who are involved with design, testing, and maintenance of safety critical applications. It is also helpful for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in engineering.

Design for Safety is the second in a series of “Design for” books. Design for Reliability was the first in the series with more planned for the future.

Series Editor’s Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

Introduction: What You Will Learn xxv

1 Design for Safety Paradigms 1
Dev Raheja, Louis J. Gullo, and Jack Dixon

1.1 Why Design for System Safety? 1

1.1.1 What Is a System? 1

1.1.2 What Is System Safety? 2

1.1.3 Organizational Perspective 2

1.2 Reflections on the Current State of the Art 2

1.3 Paradigms for Design for Safety 3

1.3.1 Always Aim for Zero Accidents 4

1.3.2 Be Courageous and “Just Say No” 5

1.3.3 Spend Significant Effort on Systems Requirements Analysis 7

1.3.4 Prevent Accidents from Single as well as Multiple Causes 8

1.3.5 If the Solution Costs Too Much Money, Develop a Cheaper Solution 9

1.3.6 Design for Prognostics and Health Monitoring (PHM) to Minimize the Number of Surprise Disastrous Events or Preventable Mishaps 10

1.3.7 Always Analyze Structure and Architecture for Safety of Complex Systems 11

1.3.8 Develop a Comprehensive Safety Training Program to Include Handling of Systems by Operators and Maintainers 12

1.3.9 Taking No Action Is Usually Not an Acceptable Option 12

1.3.10 If You Stop Using Wrong Practices, You Are Likely to Discover the Right Practices 13

1.4 Create Your Own Paradigms 13

1.5 Summary 14

References 14

2 The History of System Safety 17
Jack Dixon

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Origins of System Safety 18

2.2.1 History of System Safety 19

2.2.2 Evolution of System Safety and Its Definitions 21

2.2.3 The Growth of System Safety 23

2.3 Tools of the Trade 30

2.4 Benefits of System Safety 31

2.5 System Safety Management 34

2.6 Integrating System Safety into the Business Process 34

2.6.1 Contracting for System Safety 34

References 36

Suggestions for Additional Reading 38

3 System Safety Program Planning and Management 39
Louis J. Gullo and Jack Dixon

3.1 Management of the System Safety Program 39

3.1.1 System Safety Management Considerations 40

3.1.2 Management Methods and Concepts 41

3.2 Engineering Viewpoint 44

3.2.1 Software Tools 45

3.2.2 Design Concepts and Strategy 45

3.2.3 System Development Process (SDP) 46

3.2.4 Systems Engineering V]Model 46

3.2.5 Requirements Generation and Analysis 48

3.2.6 System Analysis 49

3.2.7 System Testing 49

3.2.8 Risk Management 50

3.3 Safety Integrated in Systems Engineering 50

3.4 Key Interfaces 51

3.5 Planning, Execution, and Documentation 52

3.5.1 System Safety Program Plan 52

3.5.2 Safety Assessment Report 58

3.5.3 Plans Related to System Safety 60

3.6 System Safety Tasks 61

References 61

Suggestions for Additional Reading 62

4 Managing Risks and Product Liabilities 63
Louis J. Gullo and Jack Dixon

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Risk 68

4.3 Risk Management 69

4.4 What Happens When the Paradigms for Design for Safety Are Not Followed? 71

4.5 Tort Liability 72

4.6 An Introduction to Product Liability Law 73

4.7 Famous Legal Court Cases Involving Product Liability Law 75

4.8 Negligence 77

4.9 Warnings 79

4.10 The Rush to Market and the Risk of Unknown Hazards 80

4.11 Warranty 81

4.12 The Government Contractor Defense 83

4.13 Legal Conclusions Involving Defective and Unsafe Products 84

References 85

Suggestions for Additional Reading 86

5 Developing System Safety Requirements 87
Louis J. Gullo

5.1 Why Do We Need Safety Requirements? 87

5.2 Design for Safety Paradigm 3 Revisited 89

5.3 How Do We Drive System Safety Requirements? 93

5.4 What Is a System Requirement? 94

5.4.1 Performance Specifications 96

5.4.2 Safety Requirement Specification (SRS) 98

5.5 Hazard Control Requirements 98

5.6 Developing Good Requirements 100

5.6.1 Recognize Bad Requirements 101

5.6.2 Requirements at the Top of the Issues List 102

5.6.3 Examples Good Requirements for System Safety 103

5.6.4 Negative versus Positive Requirements 104

5.7 Example of Certification and Validation Requirements for a PSDI 105

5.8 Examples of Requirements from STANAG 4404 111

5.9 Summary 113

References 114

6 System Safety Design Checklists 115
Jack Dixon

6.1 Background 115

6.2 Types of Checklists 116

6.2.1 Procedural Checklists 116

6.2.2 Observational Checklists 118

6.2.3 Design Checklists 119

6.3 Use of Checklists 122

References 123

Suggestions for Additional Reading 124

Additional Sources of Checklists 124

7 System Safety Hazard Analysis 125
Jack Dixon

7.1 Introduction to Hazard Analyses 125

7.1.1 Definition of Terms 126

7.2 Risk 126

7.3 Design Risk 127

7.3.1 Current State of the Art of Design Risk Management 127

7.3.2 Expression of Risk 127

7.3.3 Risk Management 128

7.4 Design Risk Management Methods and Hazard Analyses 135

7.4.1 Role of Hazard Analysis 135

7.5 Hazard Analysis Tools 136

7.5.1 Preliminary Hazard List 136

7.5.2 Preliminary Hazard Analysis 138

7.5.3 Subsystem Hazard Analysis (SSHA) 140

7.5.4 System Hazard Analysis (SHA) 143

7.5.5 Operating & Support Hazard Analysis (O&SHA) 145

7.5.6 Health Hazard Analysis (HHA) 148

7.6 Hazard Tracking 150

7.7 Summary 152

References 152

Suggestions for Additional Reading 152

8 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis for System Safety 153
Louis J. Gullo

8.1 Introduction 153

8.1.1 What Is an FMEA? 154

8.1.2 What Is an FMECA? 154

8.1.3 What Is a Single Point Failure? 155

8.1.4 Definitions 156

8.2 The Design FMECA (D]FMECA) 156

8.3 How Are Single Point Failures Eliminated or Avoided in the Design? 158

8.4 Software Design FMECA 165

8.5 What Is a PFMECA? 172

8.5.1 What Is the Difference Between a Process FMECA and a Design FMECA? 172

8.5.2 Why PFMECAs? 173

8.5.3 Performing PFMECA, Step by Step 174

8.5.4 Performing PFMECA, Improvement Actions 180

8.5.5 Performing PFMECA and Reporting Results 181

8.6 Conclusion 182

Acknowledgments 182

References 182

Suggestions for Additional Reading 183

9 Fault Tree Analysis for System Safety 185
Jack Dixon

9.1 Background 185

9.2 What Is a Fault Tree? 186

9.2.1 Gates and Events 187

9.2.2 Definitions 187

9.3 Methodology 189

9.4 Cut Sets 193

9.5 Quantitative Analysis of Fault Trees 198

9.6 Automated Fault Tree Analysis 199

9.7 Advantages and Disadvantages 200

9.8 Example 200

9.9 Conclusion 207

References 207

Suggestions for Additional Reading 208

10 Complementary Design Analysis Techniques 209
Jack Dixon

10.1 Background 209

10.2 Discussion of Less Used Techniques 210

10.2.1 Event Tree Analysis 210

10.2.2 Sneak Circuit Analysis 213

10.2.3 Functional Hazard Analysis 217

10.2.4 Barrier Analysis 220

10.2.5 Bent Pin Analysis 222

10.3 Other Analysis Techniques 224

10.3.1 Petri Nets 225

10.3.2 Markov Analysis 225

10.3.3 Management Oversight Risk Tree (MORT) 226

10.3.4 System]Theoretic Process Analysis 228

References 230

Suggestions for Additional Reading 230

11 Process Safety Management and Analysis 231
Jack Dixon

11.1 Background 231

11.2 Elements of Process Safety Management 232

11.3 Process Hazard Analyses 236

11.3.1 What]If Analysis 238

11.3.2 Checklist 239

11.3.3 What]If/Checklist Analysis 239

11.3.4 Hazard and Operability Study 239

11.3.5 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 241

11.3.6 Fault Tree Analysis 241

11.3.7 Equivalent Methodologies 242

11.4 Other Related Regulations 242

11.4.1 US Legislation 242

11.4.2 European Directives 244

11.5 Inherently Safer Design 244

11.6 Summary 247

References 247

Suggestions for Additional Reading 248

12 System Safety Testing 249
Louis J. Gullo

12.1 Purpose of System Safety Testing 249

12.1.1 Types of System Safety Tests 250

12.2 Test Strategy and Test Architecture 252

12.3 Develop System Safety Test Plans 256

12.4 Regulatory Compliance Testing 259

12.5 The Value of PHM for System Safety Testing 265

12.5.1 Return on Investment (ROI) from PHM 266

12.5.2 Insensitive Munitions 268

12.5.3 Introduction to PHM 269

12.6 Leveraging Reliability Test Approaches for Safety Testing 271

12.7 Safety Test Data Collection 273

12.8 Test Results and What to Do with the Results 276

12.8.1 What to Do with the Test Results? 276

12.8.2 What Happens If the Test Fails? 276

12.9 Design for Testability 277

12.10 Test Modeling 277

12.11 Summary 278

References 278

13 Integrating Safety with Other Functional Disciplines 281
Louis J. Gullo

13.1 Introduction 281

13.1.1 Key Interfaces for Systems Safety Engineering 282

13.1.2 Cross]Functional Team 283

13.1.3 Constant Communication 285

13.1.4 Digital World 285

13.1.5 Friend or Foe 286

13.2 Raytheon’s Code of Conduct 288

13.3 Effective Use of the Paradigms for Design for Safety 290

13.4 How to Influence People 293

13.5 Practice Emotional Intelligence 295

13.6 Practice Positive Deviance to Influence People 299

13.7 Practice “Pay It Forward” 301

13.8 Interfaces with Customers 303

13.9 Interfaces with Suppliers 304

13.10 Five Hats for Multi]Disciplined Engineers (A Path Forward) 304

13.11 Conclusions 306

References 306

14 Design for Reliability Integrated with System Safety 307
Louis J. Gullo

14.1 Introduction 307

14.2 What Is Reliability? 308

14.3 System Safety Design with Reliability Data 312

14.4 How Is Reliability Data Translated to Probability of Occurrence? 316

14.5 Verification of Design for Safety Including Reliability Results 322

14.6 Examples of Design for Safety with Reliability Data 323

14.7 Conclusions 327

Acknowledgment 328

References 328

15 Design for Human Factors Integrated with System Safety 329
Jack Dixon and Louis J. Gullo

15.1 Introduction 329

15.2 Human Factors Engineering 331

15.3 Human]Centered Design 331

15.4 Role of Human Factors in Design 332

15.4.1 Hardware 332

15.4.2 Software 334

15.4.3 Human–Machine Interface 336

15.4.4 Manpower Requirements 336

15.4.5 Workload 337

15.4.6 Personnel Selection and Training 337

15.5 Human Factors Analysis Process 337

15.5.1 Purpose of Human Factors Analysis 337

15.5.2 Methods of Human Factors Analysis 338

15.6 Human Factors and Risk 338

15.6.1 Risk]Based Approach to Human Systems Integration 338

15.6.2 Human Error 344

15.6.3 Types of Human Error 345

15.6.4 Mitigation of Human Error 346

15.6.5 Design for Error Tolerance 347

15.7 Checklists 347

15.8 Testing to Validate Human Factors in Design 350

Acknowledgment 350

References 350

Suggestions for Additional Reading 351

16 Software Safety and Security 353
Louis J. Gullo

16.1 Introduction 353

16.2 Definitions of Cybersecurity and Software Assurance 358

16.3 Software Safety and Cybersecurity Development Tasks 368

16.4 Software FMECA 373

16.5 Examples of Requirements for Software Safety 374

16.6 Example of Numerical Accuracy Where 2 + 2 = 5 377

16.7 Conclusions 378

Acknowledgments 378

References 378

17 Lessons Learned 381
Jack Dixon, Louis J. Gullo, and Dev Raheja

17.1 Introduction 381

17.2 Capturing Lessons Learned Is Important 382

17.3 Analyzing Failure 383

17.4 Learn from Success and from Failure 385

17.5 Near Misses 387

17.5.1 Examples of Near Misses That Ended in Disaster 388

17.6 Continuous Improvement 392

17.7 Lessons Learned Process 395

17.8 Lessons Learned Examples 396

17.8.1 Automobile Industry Lessons Learned from the Takata Airbag Recall 396

17.8.2 Automobile Industry Lessons Learned from the 2014 GM Recall 398

17.8.3 Medical Safety 406

17.8.4 Hoist Systems 411

17.8.5 Internet of Things 413

17.8.6 Explosion in Florida 415

17.8.7 ARCO Channelview Explosion 417

17.8.8 Terra Industries Ammonium Nitrate Explosion 418

17.9 Summary 418

References 419

Suggestions for Additional Reading 421

18 Special Topics on System Safety 423
Louis J. Gullo and Jack Dixon

18.1 Introduction 423

18.1.1 Why Are Many Commercial Air Transport Systems Safe? 424

18.1.2 How Many Aircraft In]Flight Accidents and Fatalities Occur in Recent Times and over History? 425

18.2 Airworthiness and Flight Safety 431

18.3 Statistical Data Comparison Between Commercial Air Travel and Motor Vehicle Travel 432

18.3.1 How Many Motor Vehicle Accidents Occurred Recently and in the Past? 432

18.3.2 When Do Systems Improve Safety? 433

18.4 Safer Ground Transportation Through Autonomous Vehicles 435

18.5 The Future of Commercial Space Travel 438

18.6 Summary 441

References 442

Appendix A: Hazards Checklist 443

Reference 449

Appendix B: System Safety Design Verification Checklist 451

Reference 472

Index 473