# Design of Reinforced Concrete, 9th Edition

# Design of Reinforced Concrete, 9th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-12984-5

Feb 2013

736 pages

$242.95

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## Description

The ninth edition of the best-selling ** Design of Reinforced Concrete** continues the tradition of earlier editions by introducing the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design in a clear and understandable manner and grounded in the basic principles of mechanics of solids. Students build on their understanding of basic mechanics to learn new concepts such as compressive stress and strain in concrete while applying current ACI Code.

The ninth edition has been updated to conform to the 2011 Building Code of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11).

Although written for an introductory three credit hour undergraduate course on reinforced concrete design, this textbook also has sufficient material for a second three credit hour course. This book is also useful for practicing engineers, as it presents the latest requirements of the ACI design code.

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Preface xv

**1 Introduction 1**

1.1 Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, 1

1.2 Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material, 1

1.3 Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material, 2

1.4 Historical Background, 3

1.5 Comparison of Reinforced Concrete and Structural Steel for Buildings and Bridges, 5

1.6 Compatibility of Concrete and Steel, 6

1.7 Design Codes, 6

1.8 SI Units and Shaded Areas, 7

1.9 Types of Portland Cement, 7

1.10 Admixtures, 9

1.11 Properties of Concrete, 10

1.12 Aggregates, 18

1.13 High-Strength Concretes, 19

1.14 Fiber-Reinforced Concretes, 20

1.15 Concrete Durability, 21

1.16 Reinforcing Steel, 22

1.17 Grades of Reinforcing Steel, 24

1.18 SI Bar Sizes and Material Strengths, 25

1.19 Corrosive Environments, 26

1.20 Identifying Marks on Reinforcing Bars, 26

1.21 Introduction to Loads, 28

1.22 Dead Loads, 28

1.23 Live Loads, 29

1.24 Environmental Loads, 30

1.25 Selection of Design Loads, 32

1.26 Calculation Accuracy, 33

1.27 Impact of Computers on Reinforced Concrete Design, 34

Problems, 34

**2 Flexural Analysis of Beams 35**

2.1 Introduction, 35

2.2 Cracking Moment, 38

2.3 Elastic Stresses—Concrete Cracked, 41

2.4 Ultimate or Nominal Flexural Moments, 48

2.5 SI Example, 51

2.6 Computer Examples, 52

Problems, 54

**3 Strength Analysis of Beams According to ACI Code 65**

3.1 Design Methods, 65

3.2 Advantages of Strength Design, 66

3.3 Structural Safety, 66

3.4 Derivation of Beam Expressions, 67

3.5 Strains in Flexural Members, 70

3.6 Balanced Sections, Tension-Controlled Sections, and Compression-Controlled or Brittle Sections, 71

3.7 Strength Reduction or φ Factors, 71

3.8 Minimum Percentage of Steel, 74

3.9 Balanced Steel Percentage, 75

3.10 Example Problems, 76

3.11 Computer Examples, 79

Problems, 80

**4 Design of Rectangular Beams and One-Way Slabs 82**

4.1 Load Factors, 82

4.2 Design of Rectangular Beams, 85

4.3 Beam Design Examples, 89

4.4 Miscellaneous Beam Considerations, 95

4.5 Determining Steel Area When Beam Dimensions Are Predetermined, 96

4.6 Bundled Bars, 98

4.7 One-Way Slabs, 99

4.8 Cantilever Beams and Continuous Beams, 102

4.9 SI Example, 103

4.10 Computer Example, 105

Problems, 106

**5 Analysis and Design of T Beams and Doubly Reinforced Beams 112**

5.1 T Beams, 112

5.2 Analysis of T Beams, 114

5.3 Another Method for Analyzing T Beams, 118

5.4 Design of T Beams, 120

5.5 Design of T Beams for Negative Moments, 125

5.6 L-Shaped Beams, 127

5.7 Compression Steel, 127

5.8 Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams, 132

5.9 SI Examples, 136

5.10 Computer Examples, 138

Problems, 143

**6 Serviceability 154**

6.1 Introduction, 154

6.2 Importance of Deflections, 154

6.3 Control of Deflections, 155

6.4 Calculation of Deflections, 157

6.5 Effective Moments of Inertia, 158

6.6 Long-Term Deflections, 160

6.7 Simple-Beam Deflections, 162

6.8 Continuous-Beam Deflections, 164

6.9 Types of Cracks, 170

6.10 Control of Flexural Cracks, 171

6.11 ACI Code Provisions Concerning Cracks, 175

6.12 Miscellaneous Cracks, 176

6.13 SI Example, 176

6.14 Computer Example, 177

Problems, 179

**7 Bond, Development Lengths, and Splices 184**

7.1 Cutting Off or Bending Bars, 184

7.2 Bond Stresses, 187

7.3 Development Lengths for Tension Reinforcing, 189

7.4 Development Lengths for Bundled Bars, 197

7.5 Hooks, 199

7.6 Development Lengths for Welded Wire Fabric in Tension, 203

7.7 Development Lengths for Compression Bars, 204

7.8 Critical Sections for Development Length, 206

7.9 Effect of Combined Shear and Moment on Development Lengths, 206

7.10 Effect of Shape of Moment Diagram on Development Lengths, 207

7.11 Cutting Off or Bending Bars (Continued), 208

7.12 Bar Splices in Flexural Members, 211

7.13 Tension Splices, 213

7.14 Compression Splices, 213

7.15 Headed and Mechanically Anchored Bars, 214

7.16 SI Example, 215

7.17 Computer Example, 216

Problems, 217

**8 Shear and Diagonal Tension 223**

8.1 Introduction, 223

8.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams, 223

8.3 Lightweight Concrete, 224

8.4 Shear Strength of Concrete, 225

8.5 Shear Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Beams, 226

8.6 Web Reinforcement, 227

8.7 Behavior of Beams with Web Reinforcement, 229

8.8 Design for Shear, 231

8.9 ACI Code Requirements, 232

8.10 Shear Design Example Problems, 237

8.11 Economical Spacing of Stirrups, 247

8.12 Shear Friction and Corbels, 249

8.13 Shear Strength of Members Subjected to Axial Forces, 251

8.14 Shear Design Provisions for Deep Beams, 253

8.15 Introductory Comments on Torsion, 254

8.16 SI Example, 256

8.17 Computer Example, 257

Problems, 258

**9 Introduction to Columns 263**

9.1 General, 263

9.2 Types of Columns, 264

9.3 Axial Load Capacity of Columns, 266

9.4 Failure of Tied and Spiral Columns, 266

9.5 Code Requirements for Cast-in-Place Columns, 269

9.6 Safety Provisions for Columns, 271

9.7 Design Formulas, 272

9.8 Comments on Economical Column Design, 273

9.9 Design of Axially Loaded Columns, 274

9.10 SI Example, 277

9.11 Computer Example, 278

Problems, 279

**10 Design of Short Columns Subject to Axial Load and Bending 281**

10.1 Axial Load and Bending, 281

10.2 The Plastic Centroid, 282

10.3 Development of Interaction Diagrams, 284

10.4 Use of Interaction Diagrams, 290

10.5 Code Modifications of Column Interaction Diagrams, 292

10.6 Design and Analysis of Eccentrically Loaded Columns Using Interaction Diagrams, 294

10.7 Shear in Columns, 301

10.8 Biaxial Bending, 302

10.9 Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns, 306

10.10 Continued Discussion of Capacity Reduction Factors, φ, 309

10.11 Computer Example, 311

Problems, 312

**11 Slender Columns 317**

11.1 Introduction, 317

11.2 Nonsway and Sway Frames, 317

11.3 Slenderness Effects, 318

11.4 Determining k Factors with Alignment Charts, 321

11.5 Determining k Factors with Equations, 322

11.6 First-Order Analyses Using Special Member Properties, 323

11.7 Slender Columns in Nonsway and Sway Frames, 324

11.8 ACI Code Treatments of Slenderness Effects, 328

11.9 Magnification of Column Moments in Nonsway Frames, 328

11.10 Magnification of Column Moments in Sway Frames, 333

11.11 Analysis of Sway Frames, 336

11.12 Computer Examples, 342

Problems, 344

**12 Footings 347**

12.1 Introduction, 347

12.2 Types of Footings, 347

12.3 Actual Soil Pressures, 350

12.4 Allowable Soil Pressures, 351

12.5 Design of Wall Footings, 352

12.6 Design of Square Isolated Footings, 357

12.7 Footings Supporting Round or Regular Polygon-Shaped Columns, 364

12.8 Load Transfer from Columns to Footings, 364

12.9 Rectangular Isolated Footings, 369

12.10 Combined Footings, 372

12.11 Footing Design for Equal Settlements, 378

12.12 Footings Subjected to Axial Loads and Moments, 380

12.13 Transfer of Horizontal Forces, 382

12.14 Plain Concrete Footings, 383

12.15 SI Example, 386

12.16 Computer Examples, 388

Problems, 391

**13 Retaining Walls 394**

13.1 Introduction, 394

13.2 Types of Retaining Walls, 394

13.3 Drainage, 397

13.4 Failures of Retaining Walls, 398

13.5 Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls, 399

13.6 Footing Soil Pressures, 404

13.7 Design of Semigravity Retaining Walls, 405

13.8 Effect of Surcharge, 408

13.9 Estimating the Sizes of Cantilever Retaining Walls, 409

13.10 Design Procedure for Cantilever Retaining Walls, 413

13.11 Cracks and Wall Joints, 424

Problems, 426

**14 Continuous Reinforced Concrete Structures 431**

14.1 Introduction, 431

14.2 General Discussion of Analysis Methods, 431

14.3 Qualitative Influence Lines, 431

14.4 Limit Design, 434

14.5 Limit Design under the ACI Code, 442

14.6 Preliminary Design of Members, 445

14.7 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames for Vertical Loads, 445

14.8 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Frames for Lateral Loads, 454

14.9 Computer Analysis of Building Frames, 458

14.10 Lateral Bracing for Buildings, 459

14.11 Development Length Requirements for Continuous Members, 459 Problems, 465

**15 Torsion 470**

15.1 Introduction, 470

15.2 Torsional Reinforcing, 471

15.3 Torsional Moments that Have to Be Considered in Design, 474

15.4 Torsional Stresses, 475

15.5 When Torsional Reinforcing Is Required by the ACI, 476

15.6 Torsional Moment Strength, 477

15.7 Design of Torsional Reinforcing, 478

15.8 Additional ACI Requirements, 479

15.9 Example Problems Using U.S. Customary Units, 480

15.10 SI Equations and Example Problem, 483

15.11 Computer Example, 487

Problems, 488

**16 Two-Way Slabs, Direct Design Method 492**

16.1 Introduction, 492

16.2 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs, 495

16.3 Design of Two-Way Slabs by the ACI Code, 495

16.4 Column and Middle Strips, 496

16.5 Shear Resistance of Slabs, 497

16.6 Depth Limitations and Stiffness Requirements, 500

16.7 Limitations of Direct Design Method, 505

16.8 Distribution of Moments in Slabs, 506

16.9 Design of an Interior Flat Plate, 511

16.10 Placing of Live Loads, 514

16.11 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs with Beams, 517

16.12 Transfer of Moments and Shears between Slabs and Columns, 522

16.13 Openings in Slab Systems, 528

16.14 Computer Example, 528

Problems, 530

**17 Two-Way Slabs, Equivalent Frame Method 532**

17.1 Moment Distribution for Nonprismatic Members, 532

17.2 Introduction to the Equivalent Frame Method, 533

17.3 Properties of Slab Beams, 535

17.4 Properties of Columns, 538

17.5 Example Problem, 540

17.6 Computer Analysis, 544

17.7 Computer Example, 545

Problems, 546

**18 Walls 547**

18.1 Introduction, 547

18.2 Non–Load-Bearing Walls, 547

18.3 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls—Empirical Design Method, 549

18.4 Load-Bearing Concrete Walls—Rational Design, 552

18.5 Shear Walls, 554

18.6 ACI Provisions for Shear Walls, 558

18.7 Economy in Wall Construction, 563

18.8 Computer Example, 564

Problems, 565

**19 Prestressed Concrete 567**

19.1 Introduction, 567

19.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Prestressed Concrete, 569

19.3 Pretensioning and Posttensioning, 569

19.4 Materials Used for Prestressed Concrete, 570

19.5 Stress Calculations, 572

19.6 Shapes of Prestressed Sections, 576

19.7 Prestress Losses, 579

19.8 Ultimate Strength of Prestressed Sections, 582

19.9 Deflections, 586

19.10 Shear in Prestressed Sections, 590

19.11 Design of Shear Reinforcement, 591

19.12 Additional Topics, 595

19.13 Computer Example, 597

Problems, 598

**20 Reinforced Concrete Masonry 602**

20.1 Introduction, 602

20.2 Masonry Materials, 602

20.3 Specified Compressive Strength of Masonry, 606

20.4 Maximum Flexural Tensile Reinforcement, 607

20.5 Walls with Out-of-Plane Loads—Non–Load-Bearing Walls, 607

20.6 Masonry Lintels, 611

20.7 Walls with Out-of-Plane Loads—Load-Bearing, 616

20.8 Walls with In-Plane Loading—Shear Walls, 623

20.9 Computer Example, 628

Problems, 630

**A Tables and Graphs: U.S. Customary Units 631**

**B Tables in SI Units 669**

**C The Strut-and-Tie Method of Design 675**

C.1 Introduction, 675

C.2 Deep Beams, 675

C.3 Shear Span and Behavior Regions, 675

C.4 Truss Analogy, 677

C.5 Definitions, 678

C.6 ACI Code Requirements for Strut-and-Tie Design, 678

C.7 Selecting a Truss Model, 679

C.8 Angles of Struts in Truss Models, 681

C.9 Design Procedure, 682

**D Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 683**

D.1 Introduction, 683

D.2 Maximum Considered Earthquake, 684

D.3 Soil Site Class, 684

D.4 Risk and Importance Factors, 686

D.5 Seismic Design Categories, 687

D.6 Seismic Design Loads, 687

D.7 Detailing Requirements for Different Classes of Reinforced Concrete Moment Frames, 691

Problems, 698

Glossary 699

Index 703

- Conforms to the
**2011 Building Code of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11)**. **New Chapter on Concrete Masonry**, Chapter 20, is focused on the basics and includes the design of masonry lintels, walls loaded out-or-plane, and shear walls. An example of the design of each type of masonry element is also included to show the student some typical applications.**Units Added to Example Problems**assist the student in determining the source of each input value as well as help in the use of dimensional analysis in determining the correct answers and the units of the answers.

**Excel Spreadsheets:**Use of Excel spreadsheets for examples provides the student and instructor with tools to analyze and design reinforced concrete elements quickly as well as compare alternative solutions.**Provides enough content to cover a two semester course**at the undergraduate level.**Accessible and practical in approach**.**Grounded****in the basic principles of mechanics of solids**, so that students build on their understanding of basic mechanics to learn the new concepts of reinforced concrete design.**Shear Wall Design:**Expanded material on shear wall design in Chapter 18 gives details and examples on how to design shear walls for combined axial load and bending moment.**Visually distinct treatment of SI and U.S. customary units**in formulas and examples helps avoid confusion of units.