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Designing Effective Instruction, 7th Edition

Designing Effective Instruction, 7th Edition

Gary R. Morrison, Steven M. Ross, Howard K. Kalman, Jerrold E. Kemp

ISBN: 978-1-118-35999-0

Dec 2012

480 pages

Description

This is a valuable resource that provides instructional designers with the practical skills they need to meet the challenges of creating effective and efficient educational materials. Updated and revised, the Seventh Edition focuses on a consistent approach to instructional design by reflecting the trends both in practice and in research. The basics of instructional design are covered, helping students develop a solid foundation in the design process so that they can use the skills in the content of multi-media, classroom, and distance-education sttings. Designing Effective Instruction, 7th Edition incorporates both behavioral and cognitive approaches into the design model that reflects design decisions based on research.

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Preface ix

About the Authors xiii

Chapter One Introduction to the Ins tructional Design Process Xxvi

Getting Started xxvi

Why Instructional Design? 2

Why Do Instructional Design? 2

What Are the Benefits of Instructional Design? 3

Applying the Process to Both Academic Education and Training Programs 4

What Is Instructional Design? 6

Education versus Training 8

Instructional Design and Human Performance Technology 8

Contexts for Instructional Design 9

Premises Underlying the Instructional Design Process 10

Overview of Our Design Model 14

Instructional Problems 15

Learner and Context 15

Task Analysis 15

Instructional Objectives 15

Content Sequencing 15

Instructional Strategies 16

Designing the Message 16

Development of the Instruction 16

Evaluation Instruments 16

Ongoing Processes 18

Who’s Who in the Instructional Design Process 19

Instructional Designer 19

Subject-Matter Expert (SME) 19

Evaluator 19

Answering the Critics 20

Questions…Questions…Questions 22

Summary 22

The ID Process 23

Application 23

Answers 23

References 24

Chapter Two Identifying the Need for Instruction 26

Getting Started 26

Is Instruction the Answer? 28

Needs Assessment 29

Types of Needs and Data Sources 31

Conducting a Needs Assessment 34

Example Needs Assessment Plan 37

Goal Analysis 38

Six Steps of Goal Analysis 39

Comparing Goal Analysis and Needs Assessment 41

Performance Assessment 41

Summary 43

The ID Process 44

Application 44

Answers 45

Quality Management 46

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 46

References 47

Chapter Three Learner and Contextual Analysis 50

Getting Started 50

Types of Learner Characteristics 52

General Characteristics 53

Specific Entry Characteristics 53

Learning Styles 54

Academic Information 55

Personal and Social Characteristics 55

Culturally Diverse Learners 56

Learners with Disabilities 57

Adult Learners 58

Contextual Analysis 61

Types of Context 61

Conducting a Contextual Analysis 63

Summary 65

The ID Process 65

Application 66

Answers 66

Quality Management 66

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 66

References 68

Chapter Four Task Analysis 72

Getting Started 72

Task Analysis 74

Preparing to Conduct a Task Analysis 75

Content Structures 75

Topic Analysis 77

Analyzing a Topic 78

Procedural Analysis 80

Going Beyond Procedural Analysis 84

The Critical Incident Method 87

Conducting a Task Analysis 89

Serving as Your Own SME 89

Techniques for Gathering Data 89

Recording Methods 90

Instructional Goals 95

Summary 91

The ID Process 91

Application 92

Answer 92

Quality Management 94

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 95

References 97

Chapter Five Instructional Objectives 100

Getting Started 100

Function of Objectives 100

Three Objective Domains 102

Cognitive Domain 102

Psychomotor Domain 103

Affective Domain 104

Interrelation of Domains 104

Developing Instructional Objectives 105

The Basis for Objectives 105

Approaches to Objectives 106

Writing Objectives in the Cognitive Domain 106

Behavioral Objectives 106

Optional Parts 107

Cognitive Objectives 109

Writing Objectives for the Psychomotor Domain 112

Writing Objectives for the Affective Domain 113

Classifying Objectives 114

Expanded Performance–Content Matrix Model 114

Pros and Cons of Writing Objectives 116

Summary 117

The ID Process 117

Application 118

Answers 118

Quality Management 119

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 119

References 121

Chapter Six Designing the Instruction: Sequencing 122

Getting Started 122

The Posner and Strike Sequencing Schemes 124

Learning-Related Sequencing 124

World-Related Sequencing 126

Concept-Related Sequencing 127

Elaboration Theory Sequencing 130

Content Expertise Sequencing 130

Task Expertise Sequencing 130

From Objectives to Sequencing 130

Summary 131

The ID Process 131

Application 131

Answers 132

Quality Management 132

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 132

References 134

Chapter Seven Designing the Instruction: Strategies 136

Getting Started 136

Why Instructional Strategies? 138

Designing an Instructional Strategy 138

Foundations for the Prescriptions 138

Generative Strategies 139

Prescriptions for Instructional Strategies 140

Prescriptions for Teaching Facts 142

Prescriptions for Teaching Concepts 144

Prescriptions for Teaching Principles and Rules 145

Prescriptions for Teaching Procedures 147

Prescriptions for Teaching Interpersonal Skills 150

Prescriptions for Teaching Attitudes 151

Summary 152

The ID Process 153

Applications 153

Answers 154

Quality Management 154

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 155

References 157

Chapter Eight Designing the Instructional Message 160

Getting Started 160

Preinstructional Strategies 162

Pretests 163

Objectives 163

Overviews 164

Advance Organizers 165

Message Design for Text 166

Signaling the Text’s Schema 166

Explicit Signals 168

Typographical Signals 168

Pictures and Graphics in Instruction 172

Effectiveness 172

The Function of Pictures 174

Using Pictures in Instruction 178

Summary 179

The ID Process 179

Applications 179

Answers 180

Quality Management 180

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 181

References 183

Chapter Nine Developing Instructional Materials 186

Getting Started 186

Starting the Development of the Instruction 188

Staying Focused 188

Heuristics for Developing Instruction 189

Make It Concrete 190

Control the Step Size 191

Use Appropriate Pacing 192

Maintain Consistency 192

Use Cues 193

Putting Pen to Paper or Fingers to Keyboard 193

Preinstructional Strategy 193

Initial Presentation 194

Generative Strategy 194

Transitions 194

Cognitive Load 195

Group Presentations 203

Strengths 203

Limitations 203

Applications 204

Guidelines for Effective Lecturing 204

Distance Education 206

Self-Paced Learning 208

Strengths 209

Limitations 209

Guidelines for Effective Learning 210

Design Checklist 210

Changing Roles 211

Small-Group Formats 211

Strengths 211

Limitations 212

Formats 212

Summary 214

The ID Process 215

Application 216

Answer 216

Quality Management 216

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 216

References 217

Chapter Ten Design Considerations for Technology-Based Instruction 222

Getting Started 222

Affordances of Technology-Based Instruction 224

Individualized Computer- and Web-Based Instruction 224

Drill-and-Practice 225

Tutorials 225

Simulations 226

Games 226

Hypermedia 227

Design Considerations for Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction 227

Interface Design 228

Learner Control 228

Feedback 230

Remediation 232

Designing Interactions 232

Using Multimedia 236

Design Considerations for Group-Based Distance Instruction 240

An Individualized Approach to Distance Instruction 240

A Group Approach to Distance Instruction 240

Avoiding the Shovelware Trap 241

Summary 242

The ID Process 242

Application 242

Answer 243

Quality Management 243

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 243

References 245

Chapter Eleven the Many Faces Of Evaluation 250

Getting Started 250

Purposes of Evaluation 252

Formative Evaluation 252

Summative Evaluation 255

Confirmative Evaluation 256

Relationship Among Formative, Summative, and Confirmative Evaluations 256

The Role of Instructional Objectives 257

Multiple Data Sources Equal Increased Information 257

Processes and Products 257

Time of Testing 258

When to Evaluate 258

Relationship Between Evaluation and Instructional Objectives 258

Matching Measures to Objectives 259

Suggested Measures for Alternative Outcomes 259

Validity and Reliability of Tests 261

Validity 261

Reliability 262

Relationship Between Validity and Reliability 265

Standards of Achievement 265

Relative Standards 265

Absolute Standards 266

Measurement Issues 267

Standards Versus Conventional Measurement 267

Student Self-Evaluation 269

Pretesting 269

Testing for Prerequisites 269

Testing for Improvement in Performance 270

Benefits of Pretesting 270

Whether or Not to Pretest 272

Summary 272

The ID Process 273

Application 274

Answer 274

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 275

References 276

Chapter Twelve Developing Evaluation Instruments 278

Getting Started 278

Testing Knowledge 280

The Relationship Between Evaluation and Instructional Objectives 280

Objective Tests 281

Constructed-Response Tests 287

Testing Skills and Behavior 293

Preliminary Considerations 295

Types of Skill/Behavior Assessments 296

Attitudes 305

Two Uses of Attitude Assessment 305

Observation/Anecdotal Records 306

Assessment of Behavior 306

Questionnaire/Survey 307

Interview 308

Summary 310

The ID Process 310

Applications 311

Answers 311

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 311

References 314

Chapter Thirteen Using Evaluation to Enhance Programs: Conducting Formative and Summative Evaluations 316

Getting Started 316

A Basic Model for Formative Evaluation 318

Purposes 318

Audience 319

Issues 319

Resources 319

Evidence 320

Data-Gathering Techniques 320

Analysis 321

Reporting 322

Types of Formative Evaluation 323

Connoisseur-Based Studies 323

Decision-Oriented Studies 324

Objectives-Based Studies 325

Public Relations–Inspired Studies 325

Constructivist-Oriented Process 325

Stages of Formative Evaluation 326

Summative Evaluation: Determining Program Outcomes 327

Evaluation Versus Research 327

Program Effectiveness 328

Summative Evaluation Methods 330

Program Efficiency 331

Learner Time Required 331

Faculty and Staff Required 332

Use of Facilities 332

Program Costs 333

Developmental Costs 333

Operational Costs 334

Instructional Cost Index 335

Confirmative Evaluation: Determining Outcomes Over Time 336

Approaches to Confirmative Evaluation 337

Educational Programs 338

Training Programs 339

Reporting Results of Summative and Confirmative Evaluations 340

Summary 341

The ID Process 342

Application 343

Answer 343

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 344

References 345

Chapter Fourteen Learning Theory and Instructional Theory 348

Getting Started 348

Introduction 350

Learning Theory 351

Instructional Theory 351

Instructional Design Model 352

Applications of Instructional Theories and Models 352

Types of Learning Theory 353

Cognitive Theory 357

Summary 364

The ID Process 365

Application 367

Answer 368

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 368

References 369

Chapter Fifteen Planning For Instructional Implementation 372

Getting Started 372

Planned Change 372

Innovation 374

Communication 375

Time 375

Social System 376

The CLER Model 376

Configuration 377

Linkages 378

Environment 378

Resources 378

Planning the Implementation with the CLER Model 381

Configuration 381

Linkages 381

Environment 381

Resources 382

Analysis of the Situation 382

Implementation Plan 382

Tichy’s TPC (Technical, Political, Cultural) Framework 383

Developmental Stages and Information Decision Process Models 383

Implementation Decisions 384

Program Promotion 384

Instructional Delivery 385

Materials 386

Instructors 387

Scheduling 387

Instructor Training 387

Role of Supervisors 387

Summary 388

The ID Process 388

Application 388

Answers 389

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 389

References 390

FOR SCREEN VIEWING IN BPA ONLY

Contents xxv

Chapter Sixteen Instructional Design Project Management 392

Getting Started 392

Project Management 394

Project Planning 394

Management Activities 398

Completing the Project 399

Project Agreement and Proposal Preparation 400

Instructional Design Shortcuts 405

Flexibility of the Instructional Design Process 405

Instructional Design in Organizations 405

Purposes and Role 406

Placement within the Organization 406

Budgetary Support 407

Working with the Subject-Matter Expert and Consultants 407

The Subject-Matter Expert in Different Roles 408

Working with Other Consultants and Team Members 409

Legal Considerations in ID Project Management 410

Contracts 410

State and Federal Mandates 410

Common Legal Problems in Training 410

Summary 412

The ID Process 412

Application 413

Answers 413

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 413

References 414

APPENDIX A Sample Instructional Design Documentation 415

APPENDIX B A Sample Instructional Unit 425

Glossary 435

Index 439

  • There have been significant updates to all the chapters to include resent trends and research. The updates are consistent with the text's approach to instructional design and reflect the trends in both practice and research.
  • Every chapter begins with Getting Started, a section providing real-world scenarios of an aspect of the chapter.
  • What happens when an instructional designer tries to design a project in the real world? The Expert's Edge pieces were contributed by practicing instructional designers and scholars who share their knowledge, successes, failures, and perespectives from the real world. The Expert's Edge pieces reflect an international perspective as well as different contexts i nwhich instructional design is conducted.
  • Instructional design texts, as most scholarly texts, tend to take a sterile approach to writing. The ID Process sections allow us to present a "here's how it is really done" discussion of each element of the model.
  • Applications and Answers are presented at the end of each chapter for the readers to test their skills and knowledge.
  • Quality Management sections help designers conduct a quick quality check of the design project. Key questions and issues are presented to keep the project aligned with solving the instructional problem.
  • Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices section tracks an instructional design project through the ID process, providing a realistic example of the instructional design process along with commentary from the designer on the decisions and choices made at each step of the process.