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Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks

Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks

Guy Davies

ISBN: 978-0-470-86740-2

Nov 2004

302 pages



Designing and Developing Scalable IP Networks takes a “real world” approach to the issues that it covers.  The discussions within this book are rooted in actual designs and real development, not theory or pure engineering papers.  It recognises and demonstrates the importance of taking a multi-vendor approach, as existing network infrastructure is rarely homogenous and its focus is upon developing existing IP networks rather than creating them from scratch. 

This global book based on the author’s many years’ experience of designing real scalable systems, is an essential reference tool that demonstrates how to build a scalable network, what pitfalls to avoid and what mechanisms are the most successful in real life for engineers building and operating IP networks.  It will be ideal for network designers and architects, network engineers and managers as well as project managers and will be of particular relevance to those studying for both JNCIE and CCIE exams. 

List of Figures.

List of Tables.

About the Author.




1 Hardware Design.

1.1 Separation of Routing and Forwarding Functionality.

1.2 Building Blocks.

1.2.1 Control Module.

1.2.2 Forwarding Module.

1.2.3 Non-Stop Forwarding.

1.2.4 Stateful Failover.

1.3 To Flow or Not to Flow?

1.4 Hardware Redundancy, Single Chassis or Multi Chassis.

2 Transport Media.

2.1 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).

2.1.1 Path MTU Discovery.

2.1.2 Port Density.

2.1.3 Channelized Interfaces.

2.2 Ethernet.

2.2.1 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).

2.2.2 MTU.

2.3 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).

2.4 Packet Over SONET (POS).

2.5 SRP/RPR and DPT.

2.5.1 Intelligent Protection Switching.

2.6 (Fractional) E1/T1/E3/T3.

2.7 Wireless Transport.

2.7.1 Regulatory Constraints.

2.7.2 Interference.

2.7.3 Obstructions.

2.7.4 Atmospheric Conditions.

2.7.5 If it is so bad . . . .

3 Router and Network Management.

3.1 The Importance of an Out-Of-Band (OOB) Network.

3.1.1 Management Ethernet.

3.1.2 Console Port.

3.1.3 Auxiliary (Aux) Port.

3.1.4 Remote Power Management.

3.1.5 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS).

3.2 Network Time Protocol (NTP).

3.3 Logging.

3.4 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

3.4.1 SNMPv1, v2c and v3.

3.5 Remote Monitoring (RMON).

3.6 Network Management Systems.

3.6.1 CiscoWorks.

3.6.2 JUNOScope.

3.6.3 Non-Proprietary Systems.

3.7 Configuration Management.

3.7.1 Concurrent Version System (CVS).

3.7.2 Scripting and Other Automated Configuration Distribution and Storage Mechanisms.

3.8 To Upgrade or Not to Upgrade.

3.8.1 Software Release Cycles.

3.9 Capacity Planning Techniques.

4 Network Security.

4.1 Securing Access to Your Network Devices.

4.1.1 Physical Security.

4.1.2 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA).

4.2 Securing Access to the Network Infrastructure.

4.2.1 Authentication of Users, Hosts and Servers.

4.2.2 Encryption of Information.

4.2.3 Access Tools and Protocols.

4.2.4 IP Security (IPsec).

4.2.5 Access Control Lists.

4.2.6 RFC 1918 Addresses.

4.2.7 Preventing and Tracing Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks.

4.3 Protecting Your Own and Others’ Network Devices.

5 Routing Protocols.

5.1 Why Different Routing Protocols?

5.2 Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP).

5.2.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).

5.2.2 Authentication of OSPF.

5.2.3 Stub Areas, Not So Stubby Areas (NSSA) and Totally Stubby Areas.

5.2.4 OSPF Graceful Restart.

5.2.5 OSPFv3.

5.2.6 Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS).

5.2.7 Authentication of IS-IS.

5.2.8 IS-IS Graceful Restart.

5.2.9 Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

5.2.10 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP).

5.2.11 Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL).

5.2.12 Stuck-in-Active.

5.2.13 Why use EIGRP?

5.3 Exterior Protocols.

5.3.1 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

5.3.2 Authentication of BGP.

5.3.3 BGP Graceful Restart.

5.3.4 Multiprotocol BGP.

6 Routing Policy.

6.1 What is Policy For?

6.1.1 Who Pays Whom?

6.2 Implementing Scalable Routing Policies.

6.3 How is Policy Evaluated?

6.3.1 AND or OR?

6.3.2 The Flow of Policy Evaluation.

6.4 Policy Matches.

6.5 Policy Actions.

6.5.1 The Default Action.

6.5.2 Accept/Permit, Reject/Deny, and Discard.

6.6 Policy Elements.

6.7 AS Paths.

6.8 Prefix Lists and Route Lists.

6.9 Internet Routing Registries.

6.10 Communities.

6.11 Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED).

6.12 Local Preference.

6.13 Damping.

6.14 Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding.

6.15 Policy Routing/Filter-Based Forwarding.

6.16 Policy Recommendations.

6.16.1 Policy Recommendations for Customer Connections.

6.16.2 Policy Recommendations for Peering Connections.

6.16.3 Policy Recommendations for Transit Connections.

6.17 Side Effects of Policy.

7 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

7.1 Traffic Engineering.

7.2 Label Distribution Protocols.

7.3 Tag Distribution Protocol (TDP).

7.4 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP).

7.4.1 LDP Graceful Restart.

7.5 RSVP with Traffic Engineering Extensions (RSVP-TE).

7.5.1 RSVP-TE Graceful Restart.

7.5.2 OSPF with Traffic Engineering Extensions (OSPF-TE).

7.5.3 IS-IS with Traffic Engineering Extensions (IS-IS-TE).

7.6 Fast Reroute.

7.7 Integrating ATM and IP Networks.

7.8 Generalized MPLS (GMPLS).

8 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

8.1 VPNs at Layer 3.

8.1.1 Layer 3 VPN (RFC 2547bis).

8.1.2 Generic Router Encapsulation (GRE).

8.1.3 IPsec.

8.2 VPNs at Layer 2.

8.2.1 Circuit Cross-Connect (CCC).

8.2.2 Translational Cross-Connect (TCC).

8.2.3 Martini (Layer 2 circuits).

8.2.4 Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS).

8.2.5 Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS).

8.2.6 Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol (L2TP).

9 Class of Service and Quality of Service.

9.1 Design and Architectural Issues of CoS/QoS.

9.2 CoS/QoS Functional Elements.

9.2.1 Classification.

9.2.2 Congestion Notification Mechanisms.

9.2.3 Congestion Avoidance Mechanisms.

9.2.4 Queueing Strategies.

9.3 QoS Marking Mechanisms.

9.3.1 Layer 2 Marking.

9.3.2 Layer 3 QoS.

9.3.3 MPLS EXP.

9.4 Integrating QoS at Layer 2, in IP and in MPLS.

9.4.1 DiffServ Integration with MPLS.

10 Multicast.

10.1 Multicast Forwarding at Layer 2.

10.1.1 Multicast on Ethernet and FDDI.

10.1.2 Multicast Over Token Ring.

10.1.3 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

10.1.4 IGMP Snooping.

10.1.5 PIM/DVMRP Snooping.

10.1.6 Immediate Leave Processing.

10.1.7 Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP).

10.2 Multicast Routing.

10.2.1 Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) Check.

10.2.2 Dense Mode Protocols.

10.2.3 Sparse Mode Protocols.

10.2.4 Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP).

10.2.5 Multiprotocol BGP.

10.2.6 Multicast Scoping.

11 IPv6.

11.1 Evolution and Revolution.

11.2 IPv6 Headers.

11.3 IPv6 Addressing.

11.3.1 Hierarchical Allocations.

11.3.2 Address Classes.

11.4 Stateless Autoconfiguration.

11.5 Domain Name System (DNS).

11.6 Transition Mechanisms.

11.6.1 Dual Stack.

11.6.2 Network Address Translation—Protocol Translation.

11.6.3 Tunnelling IPv6 in IPv4.

11.7 Routing in IPv6.

11.7.1 IS-IS for IPv6.

11.7.2 OSPFv3.

11.7.3 RIPng.

11.7.4 Multiprotocol BGP.

11.8 Multicast in IPv6.

11.9 IPv6 Security.

11.10 Mobility in IPv6.

12 Complete Example Configuration Files (IOS and JUNOS Software).

12.1 Core Router (P) Running MPLS TE Supporting LDP Tunnelled Through RSVP-TE, No Edge Interfaces, iBGP Only, Multicast RP (Anycast Static) MSDP, PIM-SM (JUNOS).

12.2 Core Router (P) Running MPLS TE Supporting LDP Tunnelled Through RSVP-TE, No Edge Interfaces, iBGP Only, Multicast RP (Anycast Static) MSDP, PIM-SM (IOS).

12.3 Aggregation Router (PE) Running MPLS L3 and L2VPN Over LDP, BGP Policy to Customers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS).

12.4 Aggregation Router (PE) Running MPLS L3 and L2VPN Over LDP, BGP Policy to Customers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS).

12.5 Border Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Peers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS).

12.6 Border Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Peers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS).

12.7 Transit Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Upstream Transit Providers, MBGP, PIM-SM (JUNOS).

12.8 Transit Router Running MPLS with LDP, BGP Policy to Upstream Transit Providers, MBGP, PIM-SM (IOS).



""…an excellent reference tool for IT professionals. Students studying computer science (especially networking) would also find this book useful."" (E-STREAMS, August 2005)