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Development of Marine Resources

Development of Marine Resources

André Monaco (Editor), Patrick Prouzet

ISBN: 978-1-119-00778-4

Dec 2014, Wiley-ISTE

242 pages

$120.99

Description

Marine resources and their exploitation, recovery and economic networks they generate are here from the perspective now inevitable growing environmental constraints, policy management and technical innovation.

A historical perspective shows that Ocean and its adjacent seas at all times, allowed coastal communities to adapt to a very volatile environment through many technological changes.

The recent development of marine biotechnology , the discovery of a great pharmacopoeia especially in reef environments , the development of marine renewables , are examples which show that man can develop through these new technologies property and services of the ocean.

But this development resources under pressure of global change requires not only taking into account technical, but also social and political. This is the price that the analysis of maritime activities will assess the sustainability and development of various economic sectors and coastal populations, faced with the objectives of a "blue growth" associated with a return to the "good state "of the marine environment.

FOREWORD ix

CHAPTER 1. FISHING IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, PAST AND PRESENT: HISTORY AND TECHNICAL CHANGES 1
Daniel FAGET and Jacques SACCHI

1.1. Mediterranean fishing of the past (18th Century) 2

1.1.1. Brotherhoods and prud’homies: old forms of regulation of the fishing world 2

1.1.2. Plural communities 4

1.1.3. Diversity of traditional techniques in the Mediterranean 6

1.1.4. Speculative fishing: the madrague 10

1.1.5. A highly varied consumption, reflective of relative shortages 11

1.2. Evolving practices (18–19th Centuries) 12

1.2.1. The evolving world of fishing: human migration and technical changes 13

1.2.2. Between the thought of decline and fragility of the environment 15

1.2.3. Aquaculture, or the dream of a domesticated sea (1850–1900) 19

1.2.4. Rationalizing the fishing industry in the Mediterranean: the rise of “applied zoology” (1880–1914) 20

1.3. Industrial power at the service of fisheries (end of 19th–20th Century) 22

1.3.1. The industrialization of Mediterranean fishing 24

1.3.2. Seine fishing 25

1.3.3. Trawl fishing 31

1.4. Fishermen today in the Mediterranean 36

1.4.1. The role of fishing in the consumption of sea products 38

1.4.2. Diagnosis, fragility and over-exploitation 40

1.4.3. State of the resource and the environment 42

1.4.4. Ecosystem approach of fisheries and governance 43

1.4.5. Institutions 45

1.4.6. Seeking to promote the value of seas 46

1.4.7. Education, raising awareness and labeling: the fishermen, agents of a sustainable exploitation of
the environment 48

1.4.8. The necessary consideration of the patrimonial dimension of artisanal fishing 49

1.5. Bibliography 50

CHAPTER 2. MICROALGAE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 57
Jean-Paul CADORET, Gaël BOUGARAN, Jean-Baptiste BÉRARD, Grégory CARRIER, Aurélie CHARRIER, Noémie COULOMBIER, Matthieu GARNIER, Raymond KAAS, Loïc LE DÉAN, Ewa LUKOMSKA, Elodie NICOLAU, Catherine ROUXEL, Bruno SAINT-JEAN and Nathalie SCHREIBER

2.1. Microalgae 57

2.2. The potential value of microalgae 59

2.2.1. Human nutrition 59

2.2.2. Animal nutrition 60

2.2.3. Health 61

2.2.4. Cosmetics 65

2.2.5. Industrial application 65

2.2.6. Microalgae as fuel sources 68

2.3. The culture of microalgae 70

2.3.1. Ecophysiological needs 71

2.3.2. Productions and productivities 85

2.4. Research in support of the development of the branch 94

2.4.1. Omics 94

2.4.2. Species improvement 97

2.5. Conclusion 100

2.6. Bibliography 102

CHAPTER 3. PHARMACOLOGY OF REEF MARINE ORGANISMS 117
Cécile DEBITUS and Jean GUÉZENNEC

3.1. Introduction 117

3.1.1. Geographical strengths 117

3.1.2. The marine environment: a source of new molecules 119

3.2. Applications of marine molecules: reality 124

3.2.1. Acquired results 124

3.2.2. Current trends 127

3.3. Concrete examples of marine natural products research programs 129

3.3.1. Steps of a project 130

3.4. Marine environment and biotechnology: the essential role of microorganisms 135

3.4.1. Microorganisms of the marine environment 136

3.4.2. Example of an atypical ecosystem: microbial mats, or kopara 139

3.5. Bibliography 152

CHAPTER 4. MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGIES 157
Michel PAILLARD, Bernard MULTON and Marc BOEUF

4.1. Introduction 157

4.2. The energetic context and the stakes in the development of renewable energies 158

4.2.1. Energy resources, reserves and final energy, definitions and concepts 158

4.2.2. Global, European and French contexts: the stakes 163

4.3. The place of marine energies in renewable energies 167

4.3.1. Marine renewable energies (MRE) 167

4.3.2. The specificities of MRE and their place in the energy mix 170

4.3.3. The four stakes of the development of MRE in France 171

4.3.4. Technological diversity 172

4.3.5. Involvement in France, Europe and the world 184

4.3.6. The importance of MRE overseas and the insular context 188

4.4. Technological and non-technological issues 191

4.4.1. Limitations of the marine environment 191

4.4.2. Development of reliable and economically competitive technology 194

4.4.3. The storing of electricity, a lever for large-scale development 194

4.4.4. Controlling environmental and societal impacts 197

4.4.5. Establishing an adapted regulatory context 200

4.5. Socio-economic consequences 201

4.5.1. The industrial stakes 201

4.5.2. Impacts and usage conflicts to control – compensatory measures 206

4.6. Perspectives 206

4.6.1. Development of the different sectors: present, short- and long-term 206

4.6.2. Today in the world, in Europe and in France 207

4.6.3. 2015–2025: from demonstrators to power plants via pilot facilites 208

4.6.4. 2030 and beyond: large-scale development 210

4.7. Bibliography 211

LIST OF AUTHORS 215

INDEX 217