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Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish

Brian Austin (Editor), Aweeda Newaj-Fyzul (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-15210-1

Sep 2017

320 pages

In Stock

$165.00

Description

There has been a continual expansion in aquaculture, such that total production is fast approaching that of wild-caught fisheries. Yet the expansion is marred by continued problems of disease. New pathogens emerge, and others become associated with new conditions. Some of these pathogens become well established, and develop into major killers of aquatic species.

Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of Fish and Shellfish focuses on the diagnosis and control of diseases of fish and shellfish, notably those affecting aquaculture. Divided into 12 chapters, the book discusses the range of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens, their trends, emerging problems, and the relative significance to aquaculture. Developments in diagnostics and disease management, including the widespread use of serological and molecular methods, are presented. Application/dose and mode of action of prebiotics, probiotics and medicinal plant products used to control disease are examined, as well as the management and hygiene precautions that can be taken to prevent/control the spread of disease.

This book will be a valuable resource for researchers, students, diagnosticians, veterinarians, fish pathologists and microbiologists concerned with the management of diseases of fish and shellfish.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Introduction 1
Brian Austin and Aweeda Newaj-Fyzul

Conclusion 3

References 3

2 Bacterial Diagnosis and Control in Fish and Shellfish 5
Mags Crumlish

Introduction 5

Bacterial Infections in Aquaculture 5

Bacterial Disease Diagnostics and Control of Infections 6

Modern Approaches in Bacterial Diagnostics 9

Control Strategies Against Bacterial Diseases 10

Emerging Bacterial Diseases 11

Climate Change and Aquatic Bacterial Disease 12

Polymicrobial and Concurrent Infections 13

Public Health and Aquaculture 13

Conclusion 14

References 14

3 Complexities of Diagnostics of Viruses Affecting Farmed Aquatic Species 19
Manfred Weidmann

References 29

4 Parasitic Diseases in Aquaculture: Their Biology, Diagnosis and Control 37
Giuseppe Paladini, Matt Longshaw, Andrea Gustinelli, and Andrew P. Shinn

Introduction 37

Protista 38

Biology and Taxonomy 38

Life-Cycle 38

Public Health 38

Significant Pathogens within the Group 40

Reviews 40

Identification 41

Diagnostic Methods 41

Myxozoa 42

Biology and Taxonomy 42

Life-Cycle 42

Public Health 43

Significant Pathogens within the Group 43

Reviews 43

Identification 43

Diagnostic Methods 43

Mesomycetozoea, Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms 44

Biology and Taxonomy 44

Life-Cycle 44

Public Health 45

Significant Pathogens within the Group 45

Reviews 46

Identification 46

Diagnostic Methods 46

Monogenea 46

Biology and Taxonomy 46

Life-Cycle 48

Public Health 48

Significant Pathogens within the Group 49

Reviews 49

Identification 49

Diagnostic Methods 49

Digenea 50

Biology and Taxonomy 50

Life-Cycle 52

Public Health 52

Significant Pathogens within the Group 53

Reviews 54

Identification 54

Diagnostic Methods 54

Cestoda 55

Biology and Taxonomy 55

Life-Cycle 55

Public Health 56

Significant Pathogens within the Group 57

Reviews 57

Identification 57

Diagnostic Methods 57

Nematoda 58

Biology and Taxonomy 58

Life-Cycle 58

Public Health 59

Significant Pathogens within the Group 59

Reviews 60

Identification 60

Diagnostic Methods 60

Acanthocephala 60

Biology and Taxonomy 60

Life-Cycle 61

Public Health 62

Significant Pathogens within the Group 62

Reviews 62

Identification 62

Diagnostic Methods 63

Arthropoda 63

Biology and Taxonomy 63

Life-Cycles 63

Parasitic Copepods 63

Isopods 65

Branchiurans 65

Public Health 65

Significant Pathogens within the Group 66

Reviews 66

Taxonomy and Systematics 66

Identification 67

Diagnostic Methods 68

Treatment, Prophylaxis and Farm Management Practices 69

Chemical Approaches 69

Reviews 70

Parasiticide Mode of Action 71

Non-Chemical Approaches in Parasite Control 72

Biosecurity 72

Farm Infrastructure 72

Husbandry-Based Practices 73

Diet 74

Biological Interventions 74

Genetic Breeding Programmes 74

Physical Measures 75

Mechanical Measures 75

Conclusion 76

References 77

5 Modern Methods of Diagnosis 109
Ahran Kim, Thanh Luan Nguyen, and Do-Hyung Kim

Introduction 109

Diagnostic Methods for Aquatic Diseases 110

Conventional Methods 110

Histopathology 110

Parasitology 110

Bacteriology 111

Virology 111

Immunoserological Methods 112

Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies 112

Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay 114

Immunofluorescence Test 114

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) 117

Lateral Flow Immunoassay 119

Molecular Methods 121

Hybridization Methods 121

Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods 123

Molecular Typing Methods 128

Future Diagnostic Methods 129

Nanotechnology-based Strategies for Rapid Detection of Fish Pathogens 129

MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Microbial Identification 130

High-throughput Sequencing Technologies 132

Whole-genome Sequencing of Bacterial Pathogens 132

Metagenomics Approaches for Pathogen Detection 134

Conclusion 135

References 137

6 Immunostimulant Diets and Oral Vaccination In Fish 147
Eva Vallejos-Vidal, Felipe Reyes-López, and Simon MacKenzie

Introduction 147

Commonly Measured Immunological Parameters 148

Plant, Herbal and Algal Extracts 150

Plant and Herb Extracts 151

Andrographis paniculata 151

Aloe barbadensis 151

Chinese Herbs 152

Azadirachta indica 152

Camellia sinensis 152

Cedrus deodara 153

Citrus sinensis 153

Coffea arabica 153

Echinacea 153

Eclipta alba 154

Mentha piperita 154

Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Queen of Plants) 154

Psidium guajava L 154

Rehmannia glutinosa 154

Rhizophora apiculata 155

Cotinus coggyria 155

Urtica dioica 155

Viscum album coloratum 155

Zingiber officinale 156

Algae and Fungi Extracts 156

Astaxanthin 156

Navicula 156

Porphyridium cruentum 157

Spirulina platensis 157

Ganoderma lucidum 158

Lentinula edodes 158

Diets Containing Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns 158

Beta-Glucan 158

Saccharomyces cerevisiae 161

Chitin 162

Receptors Mediating Immunostimulation Via PAMPs 162

Oral Vaccination 164

Gut Immunity 165

Non-encapsulated Vaccines 166

Encapsulated Oral Vaccines 166

Future Perspectives 167

References 168

7 Prebiotics and Synbiotics 185
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Yun-Zhang Sun, and Zhigzhang Zhou

The Interactions between Feed Additives and Diseases of Fish and Shellfish 185

Prebiotics and Synbiotics: Definition and History 185

Mode of Actions on Disease Resistance 186

Strengthening the Immune Response 186

Conclusion 187

References 187

8 Probiotics for Disease Control in Aquaculture 189
S.M. Sharifuzzaman and Brian Austin

Introduction 189

Definition of Probiotics 190

Source of Probiotics 191

Application Methods and Options 192

Delivery Method 192

Dosage, Frequency and Duration of Administration 193

Use of Single Strain or Combinations 194

Dead, Inactivated or Cell Component 194

Range of Probiotics and their Efficacy 195

Modes of Action 204

Example of Commercial-Scale Application 207

Safety and Regulatory Issues 208

Conclusion 208

References 209

9 Use of Medicinal Plants in Aquaculture 223
Mirian Reverter, Nathalie Tapissier-Bontemps, Pierre Sasal, and Denis Saulnier

Introduction 223

Medicinal Plants in Aquaculture 224

Biological Activity of Medicinal Plants in Aquaculture 224

Application of Medicinal Plants in Aquaculture 225

Analysis of Plants Used in Aquaculture 227

Plant Orders Most Frequently Used in Aquaculture 239

Lamiales 239

Fabales 241

Asterales 241

Malpighiales 242

Plant Species Most Widely Used in Aquaculture 242

Analysis of Plant Bioactivity 243

Analysis of Plant Parts Used in Aquaculture 244

Other Plants and Perspectives 244

Conclusion 245

References 246

10 Antibiotics and Disinfectants 263
Brian Austin

Introduction 263

Antibiotics 264

Chemotherapy Regimes 264

Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) 264

Chryseobacterium scophthalmum 267

Cold-Water Disease/Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome (RTFS) 267

Cold-Water Vibriosis 267

Columnaris 267

Edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella ictaluri) 267

Edwardsiellosis (E. tarda) 267

Enteric Redmouth (ERM) 267

Flavobacteriosis 268

Flavobacterium johnsoniae 268

Francisellosis 268

Furunculosis; Carp Erythrodermatitis; Goldfish Ulcer Disease 268

Gaffkemia 268

Lactococcosis and Streptococcosis 268

Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia (Aeromonas hydrophila) 269

Mycobacteriosis 269

Nocardiosis 269

Pasteurellosis 269

Plesiomonas shigelloides 269

Rickettsiosis 269

Sekiten byo; Red Spot 269

Sporocytophaga sp. 269

Staphylococcus aureus 269

Staphylococcus epidermidis 269

Tenacibaculum maritimum 269

Vibriosis (Vibrio anguillarum; V. ordalii) 270

Vibrio alginolyticus 270

Vibrio harveyi 270

Vibrio pelagius 270

Vibrio splendidus 270

Disinfectants 270

Disinfectant Regimes 271

Aeromonas Septicaemia; Fin/Tail Rot 271

Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) and Sea Lice 271

Bacterial Gill Disease 271

Bacterial Kidney Disease 271

Botulism 271

Citrobacter freundii 271

Cold-Water Disease 271

Columnaris 271

Columnaris and Ichthyobodo necator – Concurrent Infections 272

Crayfish Plague 272

Flavobacterium johnsoniae 272

Gyrodactylus salaris 272

Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) 272

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) 272

Mycobacteriosis 272

Pseudomonas fluorescens 272

Sporocytophaga sp. 273

Conclusion 273

References 273

11 Management Techniques and Disease Control 279
Aweeda Newaj-Fyzul and Brian Austin

Introduction 279

Disinfection 279

Hygiene 280

Acquisition of New Stock 280

Stocking Levels 280

Water Flow and Aeration 280

Feed/Feeding Regimes 281

Vermin 281

References 281

12 Conclusions 283
Brian Austin and Aweeda Newaj-Fyzul

References 284

Index 289