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Diagnostic Samples: From the Patient to the Laboratory: The Impact of Preanalytical Variables on the Quality of Laboratory Results, 4th, Updated Edition

Diagnostic Samples: From the Patient to the Laboratory: The Impact of Preanalytical Variables on the Quality of Laboratory Results, 4th, Updated Edition

Walter G. Guder, Sheshadri Narayanan, Hermann Wisser, Bernd Zawta

ISBN: 978-3-527-32307-4 September 2009 Wiley-Blackwell 124 Pages


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This fourth, updated edition contains the latest developments in analytical techniques. An international team of authors summarizes the information on biological influences, analytical interferences and on the variables affecting the collection, transport and storage, as well as preparation of samples. In so doing, they cover age, gender, race, pregnancy, diet, exercise and altitude, plus the effects of stimulants and drugs. National and international standards are described for sampling procedures, transport, sample identification and all safety aspects, while quality assurance procedures are shown for total laboratory management.
In addition, this practical book contains a glossary as well as a separate list of analytes containing the available data on reference intervals, biological half-life times, stability and influence and interference factors.
For everyone involved in patient care and using or performing laboratory tests.

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Dream and reality -
An introductory case -
The importance of the preanalytical phase
Something unavoidable -
Influences of age, gender, race and pregnancy
Changing habits -
Influences that can vary (diet, starvation, exercise, altitude)
May I take coffee, smoke or drink before blood sampling? -
Stimulants and addictive drugs as biological influence factors
What if I take herbs? -
Effects of herbs on laboratory results
When to test? -
Timing of sampling
Sampling during infusion therapy? -
Sequence of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures
Sampling in the supine or upright position? -
Effects of posture and tourniquet
What site for sampling blood? -
Phlebotomy, arterial puncture and sampling from catheters
Blood from the skin -
Capillary sampling
Did the lab mix up my sample? -
Techniques of sample identification
A precious sample -
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
A sample that is nearly always available -
Urine and saliva as diagnostic probes
Plasma or serum? -
Differences to be considered
Take a lavender tube! -
Additives and colour codes
Fax me a sample -
Effects of time and temperature during transport
Samples in transit -
Legal standardization for mailing samples
How to keep a sample "fresh" -
Storage of samples in the laboratory
What has to be done on specimen arrival? -
Specimen processing, centrifugation, distribution
Continuous or batchwise? -
Preanalytical workflow and robotics
Safety aspects during the preanalytical phase -
Disposal of specimens, needles, tubes and chemicals
What is needed before blood transfusion? -
Special aspects in immuno-haematology
Why a separate tube for the coagulation test? -
Special aspects in haemostaseology
Blood cells are sensitive! -
Special aspects in haematological analysis
Everything from a drop of blood? -
Special aspects in clinical chemistry
Special tubes for hormones and proteomics? -
Preanalytical factors in immunoassays
Blood cells can provide important information -
Special aspects in cellular analysis
How to handle genes -
Special aspects in molecular biology
When gases evaporate -
Special aspects for blood gases and ionized calcium
The right time for drugs? -
Special aspects in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)
Bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses -
Special aspects in microbiology
Can turbid samples be used? -
Effects of lipaemia
A difficult case -
Pitfalls with endogenous antibodies
The serum sample looks reddish -
Effects of haemolysis
Does the laboratory have to know all my drugs? -
Mechanisms and treatment of drug interference
Everything under control? -
Quality assurance in the preanalytical phase