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Discovery of the Magnetosphere

Discovery of the Magnetosphere

C. Stewart Gillmor (Editor), John R. Spreiter (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66543-5 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 286 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the History of Geophysics Series, Volume 7.

The beginnings of magnetospheric physics were the beginnings of space physics, of the marvelous discoveries made from in situ measurements from rockets and satellites and from increasingly sophisticated ground-based measurements and computer-assisted theoretical and empirical research. The beginnings of magnetospheric physics are also intimately connected with the International Geophysical Year 1957-58, the greatest world-wide cooperative scientific event in history. From the period following World War II until the late 1960s, the United States, and world physics and engineering in general, entered a new level of large-scale research epitomized by "space physics."

Covering the period roughly 1958-1967, this volume contains personal accounts from those pioneers whose pathfinding research initiated and solidified the field of magnetospheric physics. Here are accounts of the first rocket and satellite studies, of the discovery of the magnetosphere and Van Allen belts, of early models of the physics of the space around our Earth and of the Earth's environment within the Sun's plasma. Studies of the magnetosphere of the Earth led directly to our knowledge of the plasma environment around other planets and throughout our solar system. The authors of papers in this volume were in at the beginning, pioneers who played a significant role in the early years of magnetospheric physics.

C. Stewart Gillmor and John R. Spreiter v

The Formation and Early Evolution of Studies of the Magnetosphere
C. Stewart Gillmor 1

Aurora Research During the Early Space Age: Personal Account
S.-I. Akasofu 13

The Earth's Magnetosphere: Glimpses and Revelations
Kinsey A. Anderson 23

The Boundary and Other Magnetic Features of the Magnetosphere
Laurence J. Cahill, Jr. 37

Lightning Whistlers Reveal the Plasmapause, an Unexpected Boundary in Space
D. L. Carpenter 47

Memories, Maxims, and Motives
J. W. Dungey 61

The Role of Satellite Measurements in the Development of Magnetospheric Physics:
A Personal Perspective
D. H. Fairfield 71

Early Times in the Understanding of the Earth's Magnetosphere
Thomas Gold 11

R. A. Helliwell 83

The Opportunity Years: Magnetic and Electric Field Investigations
James P. Heppner 95

The Magnetosphere is Brought to Life
Colin O. Hines 107

Ray Tracing Technique Applied to ELF and VLF Wave Propagation in the Magnetosphere
Iwane Kimura 119

Music and the Magnetosphere
Carl E. Mcllwain 129

Adventures With the Geomagnetic Field
E. N. Parker 143

The Role of the DISCOVERER Program in Early Studies of the Magnetosphere
Joseph B. Reagan 157

My Adventures in the Magnetosphere (with Addendum: A Student's Story)
S. Fred Singer and Robert C. Wentworth 165

An Education in Space Physics
D. J. Southwood 185

Modeling Solar Wind Flow Past the Magnetosphere
John R. Spreiter and S. S. Stahara 193

Early Ground Based Approach to Hydromagnetic Diagnostics of Outer Space
Valerie A. Troitskaya 221

Energetic Particles in the Earth's External Magnetic Field
James A. Van Allen 235

From Nuclear Physics to Space Physics by Way of High Altitude Nuclear Tests
Martin Walt 253

A Brief History of Research at Minnesota Related to the Magnetosphere—1957-1970
John R. Winckler 265

Present Knowledge of the Magnetosphere and Outstanding Remaining Problems
D. N. Baker 275