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Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges



Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

Peter A. Rona (Editor), Colin W. Devey (Editor), Jérôme Dyment (Editor Emeritus), Bramley J. Murton (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-67150-4 May 2013 American Geophysical Union 440 Pages



Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 188.

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges
presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including
  • Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans
  • The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation
  • Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis
  • Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle
  • Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings

The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Peter A. Rona, Colin W. Devey, Jérôme Dyment, and Bramley J. Murton vii

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges: Introduction
Peter A. Rona, Colin W. Devey, Jérôme Dyment, and Bramley J. Murton 1

Emerging Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges
Peter A. Rona 5

Hydrothermal Circulation at Slow Spreading Ridges: Analysis of Heat Sources and Heat Transfer Processes
Robert P. Lowell 11

Chemical Signatures From Hydrothermal Venting on Slow Spreading Ridges
Henrietta N. Edmonds 27

The Magnetic Signature of Hydrothermal Systems in Slow Spreading Environments
Maurice A. Tivey and Jérôme Dyment 43

Hydrothermal Activity at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges
Rolf B. Pedersen, Ingunn H. Thorseth, Tor Eivind Nygård, Marvin D. Lilley, and Deborah S. Kelley 67

Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for Improving Understanding of Hydrothermal Processes at Slow Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges
Wilfred A. Elders and Guðmundur Ómar Friðleifsson 91

Crustal Structure, Magma Chamber, and Faulting Beneath the Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Vent Field
Wayne C. Crawford, Satish C. Singh, Tim Seher, Violaine Combier, Doga Dusunur, and Mathilde Cannat 113

The Relationships Between Volcanism, Tectonism, and Hydrothermal Activity on the Southern Equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge
C. W. Devey, C. R. German, K. M. Haase, K. S. Lackschewitz, B. Melchert, and D. P. Connelly 133

The Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge
Daniel Sauter and Mathilde Cannat 153

Deformation and Alteration Associated With Oceanic and Continental Detachment Fault Systems: Are They Similar?
Barbara E. John and Michael J. Cheadle 175

Detachment Fault Control on Hydrothermal Circulation Systems: Interpreting the Subsurface Beneath the TAG Hydrothermal Field Using the Isotopic and Geological Evolution of Oceanic Core Complexes in the Atlantic
Andrew M. McCaig, Adélie Delacour, Anthony E. Fallick, Teddy Castelain, and Gretchen L. Früh-Green 207

Serpentinization and Associated Hydrogen and Methane Fluxes at Slow Spreading Ridges
Mathilde Cannat, Fabrice Fontaine, and Javier Escartín 241

High Production and Fluxes of H2 and CH4 and Evidence of Abiotic Hydrocarbon Synthesis by Serpentinization in Ultramafic-Hosted Hydrothermal Systems on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Jean Luc Charlou, Jean Pierre Donval, Cécile Konn, Hélène Ondréas, Yves Fouquet, Philippe Jean-Baptiste, and Elise Fourré 265

Phase Equilibria Controls on the Chemistry of Vent Fluids From Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ridges: Reactivity of Plagioclase and Olivine Solid Solutions and the pH-Silica Connection
W. E. Seyfried Jr., Nicholas Pester, and Qi Fu 297

Geodiversity of Hydrothermal Processes Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Ultramafic-Hosted Mineralization: A New Type of Oceanic Cu-Zn-Co-Au Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit
Yves Fouquet, Pierre Cambon, Joël Etoubleau, Jean Luc Charlou, Hélène Ondréas, Fernando J. A. S. Barriga, Georgy Cherkashov, Tatiana Semkova, Irina Poroshina, M. Bohn, Jean Pierre Donval, Katell Henry, Pamela Murphy, and Olivier Rouxel 321

Hydrothermal Systems: A Decade of Discovery in Slow Spreading Environments
Deborah S. Kelley and Timothy M. Shank 369

Chemosynthetic Communities and Biogeochemical Energy Pathways Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Case of Bathymodiolus Azoricus
N. Le Bris and S. Duperron 409

Index 431