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Drilling Engineering Problems and Solutions: A Field Guide for Engineers and Students

Drilling Engineering Problems and Solutions: A Field Guide for Engineers and Students

M. E. Hossain, M. R. Islam

ISBN: 978-1-118-99864-9

Jun 2018

642 pages

$180.99

Description

Petroleum and natural gas still remain the single biggest resource for energy on earth.  Even as alternative and renewable sources are developed, petroleum and natural gas continue to be, by far, the most used and, if engineered properly, the most cost-effective and efficient, source of energy on the planet.  Drilling engineering is one of the most important links in the energy chain, being, after all, the science of getting the resources out of the ground for processing.  Without drilling engineering, there would be no gasoline, jet fuel, and the myriad of other “have to have” products that people use all over the world every day. 

Following up on their previous books, also available from Wiley-Scrivener, the authors, two of the most well-respected, prolific, and progressive drilling engineers in the industry, offer this groundbreaking volume.  They cover the basics tenets of drilling engineering, the most common problems that the drilling engineer faces day to day, and cutting-edge new technology and processes through their unique lens.  Written to reflect the new, changing world that we live in, this fascinating new volume offers a treasure of knowledge for the veteran engineer, new hire, or student.  

This book is an excellent resource for petroleum engineering students, reservoir engineers, supervisors & managers, researchers and environmental engineers for planning every aspect of rig operations in the most sustainable, environmentally responsible manner, using the most up-to-date technological advancements in equipment and processes.

Foreword xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1. Introduction 1

1.1. Introduction of the Book 1

1.2. Introduction of Drilling Engineering 2

1.3. Importance of Drilling Engineering 2

1.4. Application of Drilling Engineering 3

1.5. Drilling Problems, Causes, and Solutions 3

1.5.1 Common Drilling Problems 5

1.6. Drilling Operations and its Problems 4

1.7. Sustainable Solutions for Drilling Problems 6

1.8. Summary 8

References 8

2. Problems Associated with Drilling Operations 11

2.1. Introduction 11

2.2. Problems Related to Drilling Methods and Solutions 12

2.2.1. Sour Gas Bearing Zones 12

2.2.1.1. How to Tackle H2S 12

2.2.2. Shallow Gas-Bearing Zones 17

2.2.2.1. Prediction of Shallow Gas Zone 18

2.2.2.2. Identification of Shallow Gas Pockets 19

2.2.2.3. Case Study 20

2.2.3. General Equipment, Communication and Personnel Related Problems 24

2.2.3.1. Equipment 24

2.2.3.2. Communication 28

2.2.3.3. Personnel 30

2.2.4. Stacked Tools 31

2.2.4.1. Objects Dropped into the Well 32

2.2.4.2. Fishing Operations 34

2.2.4.3. Junk Retrieve Operations 45

2.2.4.4. Twist-off 46

2.2.5. Difficult-to-drill Rocks 48

2.2.6. Resistant Beds Encountered 48

2.2.7. Slow Drilling 49

2.2.7.1. Factors Affecting Rate of Penetration 50

2.2.8. Marginal Aquifer Encountered 62

2.2.9. Well Stops Producing Water 62

2.2.10. Drilling Complex Formations 63

2.2.11. Complex Fluid Systems 63

2.2.12. Bit Balling 64

2.2.13. Formation Cave-in 66

2.2.14. Bridging in Wells 67

2.2.14.1. Causes of Bridging in Wells 69

2.2.14.2. Warning Signs of Cutting Setting in Vertical Well 70

2.2.14.3. Remedial Actions of Bridging in Wells 70

2.2.14.4. Preventive Actions 71

2.2.14.5. Volume of Solid Model 71

2.3. Summary 73

References 73

3. Problems Related to the Mud System 77

3.1. Introduction 77

3.2. Drilling Fluids and its Problems with Solutions 78

3.2.1. Lost Circulation 79

3.2.1.1. Mechanics of Lost Circulation 86

3.2.1.2. Preventive Measures 88

3.2.1.3. Mud Loss Calculation 90

3.2.1.4. Case Studies 92

3.2.2. Loss of Rig Time 95

3.2.3. Abandonment of Expensive Wells 96

3.2.4. Minimized Production 97

3.2.5. Mud Contamination 97

3.2.5.1. Sources and Remediation of the Contamination 99

3.2.6. Formation Damage 104

3.2.6.1. Prevention of Formation Damage 113

3.2.6.2. Quantifying Formation Damage 116

3.2.7. Annular Hole Cleaning 118

3.2.7.1. New Hole Cleaning Devices 120

3.2.8. Mud Cake Formation 122

3.2.8.1. Filtration Tests 123

3.2.8.2. Mud Cake Removal Using Ultrasonic Wave Radiation 124

3.2.8.3. Wellbore Filter Cake Formation Model 125

3.2.9. Excessive Fluid Loss 126

3.2.10. Drilling Fluid Backflow 128

3.3. General Case Studies on Lost Circulation 128

3.3.1. Lessons Learned 130

3.4. Summary 130

References 131

4. Problem Related to Drilling Hydraulics 139

4.1. Introduction 139

4.2. Drilling Hydraulics and its Problems and Solutions 141

4.2.1. Borehole Instability 147

4.2.1.1. Hole Enlargement 148

4.2.1.2. Hole Closure 150

4.2.1.3. Fracturing 150

4.2.1.4. Collapse 151

4.2.1.5. Prevention and Remediation 153

4.2.2. Proper Hole Trajectory Selection 154

4.2.3. Drill Bit Concerns 156

4.2.3.1. Bit Balling 156

4.2.4. Hydraulic Power Requirement 157

4.2.5. Vibration 160

4.3. Overall Recommendations 161

4.3.1. The Rig Infrastructure 161

4.3.2. Problems Related to Stuckpipe 162

4.3.3. Mechanical Pipe Sticking 163

4.3.4. Borehole Instability 164

4.3.4.1. Bottom Hole Pressure (mud density) 165

4.3.4.2. Well Inclination and Azimuth 165

4.3.4.3. Physical/chemical Fluid-rock Interaction 165

4.3.4.4. Drillstring Vibrations 166

4.3.4.5. Drilling Fluid Temperature 166

4.4. Summary 168

References 168

5. Well Control and BOP Problems 171

5.1. Introduction 171

5.2. Well Control System 172

5.3. Problems with Well Control and BOP and their Solutions 174

5.3.1. Kicks 174

5.3.1.1. Warning Signals of Kicks 177

5.3.1.2. Control of Influx and Kill Mud 180

5.3.2. Blowout 197

5.4. Case Studies 199

5.4.1. Blowout in East Coast of India 199

5.4.1.1. Solutions 201

5.4.1.2. Causes of the Blowout 203

5.4.1.3. Lessons Learned and Recommendations 204

5.4.2. Deepwater Horizon Blowout 205

5.4.2.1. Solutions 207

5.4.2.2. Reasons Behind the Blowout 214

5.4.2.3. Lessons Learned and Recommendation 217

5.5. Summary 218

References 219

6. Drillstring and Bottomhole Assembly Problems 221

6.1. Introduction 221

6.2. Problems Related to Drillstring and their Solutions 223

6.2.1. Stuck Pipe 223

6.2.1.1. Free Point – Stuck Point Location 224

6.2.1.2. The Most Common Causes of Stuck Pipe 227

6.2.1.3. Prevention of Stuck Pipe 229

6.2.1.4. Freeing Stuck Pipe 230

6.2.1.5. Measures to Reduce Stuck Pipe Costs 231

6.2.1.6. Some Examples of Field Practices 231

6.2.2. Drillpipe Failures 234

6.2.2.1. Twist-off 237

6.2.2.2. Parting and other Failures 240

6.2.2.3. Collapse and Burst 240

6.2.2.4. Tension Load 245

6.2.2.5. Fatigue 254

6.2.3. Problems Related to Catches 256

6.2.4. Fishing Operation 257

6.2.4.1. Stuck Pipe Fishing 257

6.2.4.2. Fishing for a “Twist-off ” 257

6.2.5. Failures Caused by Downhole Friction Heating 258

6.2.5.1. Heat Check Cracking 259

6.3. Case Studies 274

6.3.1. Vibration Control 274

6.3.1.1. Execution 276

6.3.1.2. Lessons Learned 278

6.3.2. Twist-off 279

6.4. Summary 280

References 280

7. Casing Problems 285

7.1. Introduction 285

7.2. Problems Related to Casing and their Solutions 286

7.2.1. Casing Jams during Installation 287

7.2.2. Buckling 287

7.2.2.1. Buckling Criteria 288

7.2.2.2. General Guideline 292

7.2.3. Temperature Effect 292

7.2.4. Casing Leaks 294

7.2.5. Contaminated Soil/Water-Bearing Zones 297

7.2.6. Problem with Depth to Set Casing 299

7.2.6.1. Special Considerations of a Surface Casing 301

7.2.6.2. Practical Guideline 304

7.2.6.3. Influence of Casing Shoe Depth on Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP) during Production 306

7.3. Case Studies 311

7.3.1. Case Study – 1 (Casing Jamming) 313

7.3.1.1. Lessons Learned 314

7.3.2. Case Study – 2 (Casing Installation Problems) 314

7.3.3. Case Study – 3 (Casing Installation Problems in an Offshore Field) 316

7.3.3.1. Lessons Learned 316

7.3.4. Case Study – 4 (Leaky Casing) 318

7.3.4.1. Repair Alternatives 319

7.3.4.2. Setting Patches 320

7.3.4.3. Results and Lessons Learned 321

7.3.5. Case Study – 5 (Use of Gel for Water Leaks) 323

7.3.6. Case Study – 6 (Unusual Lithology) 325

7.3.6.1. Case 1: Leak below Production Packer 327

7.3.6.2. Case 2: Casing Shoe above Unsealed High Pressure Formation 329

7.3.6.3. Case 3: Casing Shoe set in Weak Formation 332

7.3.6.4. Case 4: Leak below Production Casing Shoe   334

7.3.6.5. Lessons Learned and Recommendations 336

7.3.7. Case Study – 7 (Surface Casing Setting) 340

7.2.7.1. Leak-off Tests. 341

7.2.7.2. Reduction System. 344

7.3 Summary 347

References 347

8. Cementing  Problems 353

8.1. Introduction 353

8.2. Problems Related to Cementing and their Solutions 354

8.2.1. Leaks due to Cement Failure 355

8.2.1.1. Preventive Methods 358

8.2.2. Key Seating 362

8.2.2.1. Prevention 363

8.2.2.2. Remediation 364

8.2.3. Cement Blocks 366

8.2.4. Problems Related to Mud/Cement Rheology 366

8.2.4.1. Contamination with Oil-based Mud 367

8.2.4.2. Problem Related to Eccentric Annulus 370

8.2.4.3. Flow Regime of Cement Displacement 372

8.2.4.4. Improper Mud Cake Removal during  Cementing 374

8.2.4.5. Poor Mixing and/or Testing of Cement Slurry 375

8.2.5. Blowout Potentials 379

8.2.5.1. Overall Guidelines 381

8.3. Good Cementing Practices 382

8.3.1. Drilling Fluid 383

8.3.2. Hole Cleaning 384

8.3.3. Gel Strength 384

8.3.4. Spacers and Flushes. Contents. 386

8.2.5. Slurry Design 388

8.2.6. Casing Rotation and Reciprocation 390

8.2.7. Centralizing Casing 391

8.2.8. Displacement Efficiency 392

8.2.9. Cement Quality 393

8.2.10. Special Considerations 394

8.3. Case Studies 394

8.3.1. Causes of Cement Job Failures 394

8.3.2. Casinghead Pressure Problems 398

8.3.3. Cases of Good Cement Jobs 401

8.3.3.1. Good Case I 402

8.3.3.2. Good Case II 403

8.3.3.3. Good Case III 403

8.3.3.4. Good Case IV 406

8.3.3.5. Good Case V 409

8.3.4. Cases of Failed Cement Jobs  413

8.3.4.1. Failed Cementing Case 01 416

8.3.4.2. Failed Case 02 417

8.3.4.3. Failed Case 03 428

8.3.4.4. Failed Case 04 429

8.4. Summary 440

References 440

9. Wellbore Instability Problems 443

9.1. Introduction 443

9.2. Problems Related to Wellbore Instability and their Solutions 444

9.2.1. Causes of Wellbore Instability 445

9.2.1.1. Uncontrollable Factors 445

9.2.1.2. Controllable Factors 453

9.2.2. Indicators of Wellbore Instability 464

9.2.2.1. Diagnosis of Wellbore Instability 465

9.2.2.2. Preventative Measures 465

9.3. Case Studies 469

9.3.1. Chemical Effect Problems in Shaley Formation 469

9.3.1.1. Geological Considerations 470

9.3.1.2. Drilling Problems 470

9.3.1.3. Instability Mechanism 471

9.3.1.4. Instability Analysis 473

9.3.1.5. Shale Hydration 475

9.3.1.6. Dynamic Effects 479

9.3.1.7. Lessons Learned from Countermeasures 480

9.3.2. Minimizing Vibration for Improving Wellbore Stability 481

9.3.3. Mechanical Wellbore Stability Problems 483

9.2.3.1. Case Study for Well X-51 (Shale Problems). 483

9.2.3.2. Case Study for Well X-53 (Shale and Sand Problems). 486

9.2.3.3. Case Study for Well X-52 (Successful Case). 489

9.2.3.4. Lessons Learned. 491

9.3 Summary 493

References 494

10. Directional and Horizontal Drilling Problems 497

10.1. Introduction 497

10.2. Problems Related to Directional Drilling their Solutions 499

10.2.1. Accuracy of Borehole Trajectory 501

10.2.1.1. Guidelines and Emerging Technologies 507

10.2.2. Fishing with Coiled Tubing 508

10.2.3. Crookedness of Wells/Deflection of Wells 509

10.2.3.1. Causes of Crookedness 511

10.2.3.2. Outcomes of Crooked Borehole and Possible Remedies 515

10.2.4. Stuck Pipe Problems 517

10.2.5. Horizontal Drilling 520

10.2.5.1. Problems Associated with Horizontal Well Drilling 523

10.2.5.2. Unique Problems Related to Horizontal Well Drilling 526

10.3. Case Studies 527

10.3.1. Drilling of Multilateral and Horizontal Wells 527

10.3.2. Directional Drilling Challenges in Deepwater Subsalt 539

10.2.2.1. Description of the Reservoir. 540

10.2.2.2. Planning of Drilling. 541

10.2.2.3. Drilling Operations. 542

10.2.2.4. Planning the Sidetracks. 543

10.2.2.5. Lessons Learned. 545

10.3. Summary 545

References 545

11. Environmental Hazard and Problems during Drilling 549

11.1. Introduction 549

11.2. Problems Related to Environment during Drilling 550

11.2.1. Environmental Degradation 551

11.2.1.1. Acoustics (Noise) 551

11.2.1.2. Air Quality 552

11.2.1.3. Contamination during Drilling 554

11.2.1.4. Cultural Resources 556

11.2.1.5. Ecological Resources 556

11.2.1.6. Environmental Justice 557

11.2.1.7. Hazardous Materials and Waste Management 558

11.2.1.8. Health and Safety 559

11.2.1.9. Land Use 560

11.2.1.10. Paleontological Resources 560

11.2.1.11. Socioeconomics 561

11.2.1.12. Soils and Geologic Resources 561

11.2.1.13. Transportation 562

11.2.1.14. Water Resources 562

11.2.2. Drill Cutting Management 563

11.2.2.1. Regulatory Aspects of Drill Cutting Disposal 567

11.2.3. Subsidence of Ground Surface 570

11.2.4. Deep Water Challenges 573

11.2.4.1. Narrow Operational Window 573

11.2.4.2. Marine Drilling Riser 573

11.2.4.3. Shallow Formation Hazards 574

11.2.4.4. Risk Analysis of Offshore Drilling 575

11.3. Case Studies 579

11.3.1. Effect of Drilling Fluid Discharge on Oceanic Organisms  579

11.3.1.1. Observations and Lessons Learned 582

11.3.2. Long-term Impact on Human Health 584

11.3.2.1. Lessons Learned 590

11.4. Summary 590

References 590

12. Summary and Conclusions 595

12.1. Summary 595

12.2. Conclusions 596

12.2.1. Chapter 1: Introduction 596

12.2.2. Chapter 2: Problems Associated with Drilling Operations 597

12.2.3. Chapter 3: Problems Related to the Mud System 598

12.2.4. Chapter 4: Problem Related to Drilling Hydraulics   600

12.2.5. Chapter 5: Well Control and BOP Problems 601

12.2.6. Chapter 6: Drillstring and Bottomhole Assembly Problems 602

12.2.7. Chapter 7: Casing Problems 604

12.2.8. Chapter 8: Cementing Problems 606

12.2.9. Wellbore Instability Problems 608

12.2.10. Chapter 10: Directional and Horizontal Drilling Problems 611

12.2.11. Chapter 11: Environmental Hazard and Problems during Drilling 612

Index 615