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Durability Design of Concrete Structures: Phenomena, Modeling, and Practice

Durability Design of Concrete Structures: Phenomena, Modeling, and Practice

Kefei Li

ISBN: 978-1-118-91009-2

May 2017

288 pages

In Stock

$135.00

Description

Comprehensive coverage of durability of concrete at both material and structural levels, with design related issues

  • Links two active fields in materials science and structural engineering: the durability processes of concrete materials and design methods of concrete structures
  • Facilitates communication between the two communities, helping to implement life-cycle concepts into future design methods of concrete structures
  • Presents state-of-the-art information on the deterioration mechanism and performance evolution of structural concrete under environmental actions and the design methods for durability of concrete structures
  • Provides efficient support and practical tools for life-cycle oriented structural design which has been widely recognized as a new generation of design philosophy for engineering structures
  • The author has long experience working with the topic and the materials presented have been part of the author's current teaching course of Durability and Assessment of Engineering Structures for graduate students at Tsinghua University
  • The design methods and approaches for durability of concrete structures are developed from newly finished high level research projects and have been employed as recommended provisions in design code including Chinese Code and Eurocode 2

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xv

Part I DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE MATERIALS 1

1 Carbonation and Induced Steel Corrosion 3

1.1 Phenomena and Observations 3

1.2 Carbonation of Concrete 7

1.2.1 Mechanisms 7

1.2.2 Influential Factors 9

1.2.3 Models 12

1.3 Steel Corrosion by Carbonation 18

1.3.1 Mechanism 18

1.3.2 Influential Factors 21

1.3.3 Models 22

1.4 Basis for Design 25

1.4.1 Structural Consequence 25

1.4.2 Design Considerations 27

2 Chloride Ingress and Induced Steel Corrosion 29

2.1 Phenomena and Observations 29

2.2 Chloride Ingress 32

2.2.1 Mechanism 32

2.2.2 Influential Factors 34

2.2.3 Models 42

2.3 Steel Corrosion by Chloride Ingress 46

2.3.1 Mechanisms 46

2.3.2 Influential Factors 49

2.3.3 Models 51

2.4 Basis for Design 53

2.4.1 Structural Consequence 53

2.4.2 Design Considerations 54

3 Freeze–Thaw Damage 56

3.1 Phenomena and Observations 56

3.2 Mechanisms and Influential Factors 57

3.2.1 Mechanisms 57

3.2.2 Influential Factors 64

3.3 Modeling for Engineering Use 71

3.3.1 Model FT-1: Critical Saturation Model 71

3.3.2 Model FT-2: Crystallization Stress Model 72

3.4 Basis for Design 76

3.4.1 Structural Consequence 76

3.4.2 Design Considerations 76

4 Leaching 78

4.1 Phenomena and Observations 78

4.2 Mechanisms and Influential Factors 80

4.2.1 Mechanisms 80

4.2.2 Influential Factors 83

4.3 Modeling for Engineering Use 85

4.3.1 Model L-1: CH Dissolution Model 85

4.3.2 Model L-2: CH + C]S]H Leaching Model 87

4.3.3 Further Analysis of Surface Conditions 92

4.4 Basis for Design 94

4.4.1 Structural Consequence 94

4.4.2 Design Considerations 94

5 Salt Crystallization 96

5.1 Phenomena and Observations 96

5.2 Mechanisms and Influential Factors 99

5.2.1 Mechanisms 99

5.2.2 Influential Factors 102

5.3 Modeling for Engineering Use 106

5.3.1 Model CT-1: Critical Supersaturation Model 106

5.3.2 Model CT-2: Crystallization Stress Model 107

5.4 Basis for Design 110

Part II FROM MATERIALS TO STRUCTURES 113

6 Deterioration in Structural Contexts 115

6.1 Loading and Cracking 115

6.1.1 Mechanical Loading 116

6.1.2 Effect of Cracks: Single Crack 118

6.1.3 Effect of Cracks: Multi]cracks 128

6.2 Multi]fields Problems 130

6.2.1 Thermal Field 132

6.2.2 Moisture Field 135

6.2.3 Multi]field Problems 141

6.3 Drying–Wetting Actions 144

6.3.1 Basis for Drying–Wetting Actions 144

6.3.2 Drying–Wetting Depth 147

6.3.3 Moisture Transport under Drying–Wetting Actions 151

Part III DURABILITY DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES 155

7 Durability Design: Approaches and Methods 157

7.1 Fundamentals 157

7.1.1 Performance Deterioration 158

7.1.2 Durability Limit States 158

7.1.3 Service Life 161

7.2 Approaches and Methods 164

7.2.1 Objectives 164

7.2.2 Global Approaches 166

7.2.3 Model]based Methods 168

7.3 Life Cycle Consideration 170

7.3.1 Fundamentals for Life]cycle Engineering 171

7.3.2 Life]cycle Cost Analysis 171

7.3.3 Maintenance Design 173

8 Durability Design: Properties and Indicators 183

8.1 Basic Properties for Durability 183

8.1.1 Chemical Properties 184

8.1.2 Microstructure and Related Properties 185

8.1.3 Transport Properties 187

8.1.4 Mechanical Properties 194

8.1.5 Fundamental Relationships 195

8.2 Characterization of Durability]related Properties 198

8.2.1 Characterization of Chemical and Microstructural Properties 198

8.2.2 Characterization of Transport and Mechanical Properties 200

8.2.3 Durability Performance Tests 201

8.3 Durability Indicators for Design 205

8.3.1 Nature of Durability Indicators 205

8.3.2 Durability Indicators for Deterioration 206

8.3.3 Durability Indicators: State of the Art 208

9 Durability Design: Applications 210

9.1 Sea Link Project for 120 Years 210

9.1.1 Project Introduction 210

9.1.2 Durability Design: The Philosophy 213

9.1.3 Model]based Design for Chloride Ingress 214

9.1.4 Quality Control for Design 219

9.2 High]Integrity Container for 300 Years 220

9.2.1 High]Integrity Container and Near]Surface Disposal 220

9.2.2 Design Context 223

9.2.3 Design Models for Control Processes 226

9.2.4 Model]based Design for 300 Years 227

9.3 Further Considerations for Long Service Life Design 232

10 Codes for Durability Design 234

10.1 Codes and Standards: State of the Art 234

10.1.1 Eurocode 234

10.1.2 ACI Code 235

10.1.3 JSCE Code 237

10.1.4 China Codes 239

10.2 GB/T 50476: Design Basis 240

10.2.1 Environmental Classification 241

10.2.2 Design Lives and Durability Limit States 242

10.2.3 Durability Prescriptions 243

10.3 GB/T 50476: Requirements for Durability 244

10.3.1 Atmospheric Environment 245

10.3.2 Freeze–Thaw Environment 246

10.3.3 Marine and Deicing Salts Environments 249

10.3.4 Sulfate Environment 253

10.3.5 Post]tensioned Prestressed Structures 255

References 259

Index 270

""The book follows a basic logic line from concrete materials to structural design, and the content is accordingly divided into three parts...Overall, the book provides good coverage of the topic and valuable information for the understanding of deterioration processes of concrete structures. The book can serve as a reference for civil and structural engineering students, as well as practising engineers"". (The Structural Engineer/The Institution of Structural Engineers, May 2017)