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ESD: RF Technology and Circuits

ESD: RF Technology and Circuits

Steven H. Voldman

ISBN: 978-0-470-06139-8

Nov 2006

420 pages



With the growth of high-speed telecommunications and wireless technology, it is becoming increasingly important for engineers to understand radio frequency (RF) applications and their sensitivity to electrostatic discharge (ESD) phenomena. This enables the development of ESD design methods for RF technology, leading to increased protection against electrical overstress (EOS) and ESD.

ESD: RF Technology and Circuits:

  • Presents methods for co-synthesizisng ESD networks for RF applications to achieve improved performance and ESD protection of semiconductor chips;
  • discusses RF ESD design methods of capacitance load transformation, matching network co-synthesis, capacitance shunts, inductive shunts, impedance isolation, load cancellation methods, distributed loads, emitter degeneration, buffering and ballasting;
  • examines ESD protection and design of active and passive elements in RF complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), RF laterally-diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS), RF BiCMOS Silicon Germanium (SiGe), RF BiCMOS Silicon Germanium Carbon (SiGeC), and Gallim Arsenide technology;
  • gives information on RF ESD testing methodologies, RF degradation effects, and failure mechanisms for devices, circuits and systems;
  • highlights RF ESD mixed-signal design integration of digital, analog and RF circuitry;
  • sets out examples of RF ESD design computer aided design methodologies;
  • covers state-of-the-art RF ESD input circuits, as well as voltage-triggered to RC-triggered ESD power clamps networks in RF technologies, as well as off-chip protection concepts.

Following the authors series of books on ESD, this book will be a thorough overview of ESD in RF technology for RF semiconductor chip and ESD engineers. Device and circuit engineers working in the RF domain, and quality, reliability and failure analysis engineers will also find it a valuable reference in the rapidly growing are of RF ESD design. In addition, it will appeal to graduate students in RF microwave technology and RF circuit design.



Chapter 1. RF DESIGN and ESD.

1.1 Fundamental Concepts of ESD design.

1.2 Fundamental Concepts of RF ESD Design.

1.3 Key RF ESD Contributions.

1.4 Key RF ESD Patents.

1.5 ESD Failure Mechanisms.

1.6 RF Basics.

1.7 Two-Port Network Parameters.

1.8. Stability: RF Design Stability and ESD.

1.9 Device Degradation and ESD Failure.

1.10 RF ESD Testing.

1.11 Time Domain Reflection (TDR) and Impedance Methodology.

1.12 Product Level ESD Test and RF Functional Parameter Failure.

1.13 Combined RF and ESD TLP Test Systems.

1.14 Closing Comments and Summary.



Chapter 2. RF ESD Design.

2.1 ESD Design Methods: Ideal ESD networks and RF.

2.2 RF ESD Design Methods: Linearity.

2.3 RF ESD Design: Passive Element Quality Factors and Figures of Merit.

2.4 RF ESD Design Methods: Method of Subsitution.

2.5 RF ESD Design Methods: Matching Networks and RF ESD Networks.

2.6 RF ESD Design Methods: Inductive Shunt.

2.7 RF ESD Design Methods: Cancellation Method.

2.8 RF ESD Design Methods: Impedance Isolation Technique Using.

2.9 RF ESD Design Methods: Lumped versus Distributed Loads.

2.10 ESD RF Design Synthesis and Floor Planning: RF, Analog, and Digital Integration.

2.11 ESD Circuits and RF Bond Pad Integration.

2.12 ESD Structures Under Wire Bond Pads.

2.13 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 3. RF CMOS and ESD.

3.1 RF CMOS: ESD Device Comparisons.

3.2 Circular RF ESD Devices.

3.3 RF ESD Design—ESD Wiring Design.

3.4 RF Passives: ESD and Schottky Barrier Diodes.

3.5 RF Passives: ESD and Inductors.

3.6 RF Passives: ESD and Capacitors.

3.7 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 4. RF CMOS ESD Networks.

4.1 RF CMOS Input Circuits.

4.2 RF CMOS: Diode–Inductor ESD Networks.

4.3 RF CMOS Impedance Isolation LC Resonator ESD Networks.

4.4 RF CMOS LNA ESD Design.

4.5 RF CMOS T-Coil Inductor ESD Input Network.

4.6 RF CMOS Distributed ESD Networks.

4.7 RF CMOS Distributed ESD Networks: Transmission Lines.

4.8 RF CMOS: ESD and RF LDMOS Power Technology.

4.9 RF CMOS ESD Power Clamps.

4.10 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 5. Bipolar Physics.

5.1 Bipolar Device Physics.

5.2 Transistor Breakdown.

5.3 Kirk Effect.

5.4 Johnson Limit: Physical Limitations of the Transistor.

5.5 RF Instability: Emitter Collapse.

5.6 ESD RF Design Layout: Emitter, Base, and Collector Configurations.

5.7 ESD RF Design Layout: Utilization of a Second.

5.8 ESD RF Design Layout: Emitter Ballasting.

5.9 ESD RF Design Layout: Thermal Shunts and Thermal Lenses.

5.10 Base-Ballasting and RF Stability.

5.11 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 6. Silicon Germanium and ESD.

6.1 Heterojunctions and Silicon Germanium Technology.

6.2 Silicon Germanium Physics.

6.3 Silicon Germanium Carbon.

6.4 Silicon Germanium ESD Measurements.

6.5. Silicon Germanium Carbon Collector–Emitter ESD Measurements.

6.6 Silicon Germanium Transistor Emitter–Base Design.

6.7 Field-Oxide (FOX) Isolation Defined Silicon Germanium.

6.8 Silicon Germanium HBT Multiple-Emitter Study.

6.9 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 7. Gallium Arsenide and ESD.

7.1 Gallium Arsenide Technology and ESD.

7.2 Gallium Arsenide Energy-to-Failure and Power-to-Failure.

7.3 Gallium Arsenide ESD Failures in Active and Passive Elements.

7.4 Gallium Arsenide HBT Devices and ESD.

7.5 Gallium Arsenide HBT-Based Passive Elements.

7.6 Gallium Arsenide Technology Table of Failure Mechanisms.

7.7 Indium Gallium Arsenide and ESD.

7.8 Indium Phosphide (InP) and ESD.

7.9 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 8. Bipolar Receiver Circuits and Bipolar ESD Networks.

8.1 Bipolar Receivers and ESD.

8.2 Single Ended Common-Emitter Receiver Circuits.

8.3 Bipolar Differential Receiver Circuits.

8.4 Bipolar ESD Input Circuits.

8.5 Bipolar-based ESD Power Clamps.

8.6 Bipolar ESD Diode String and Triple-Well Power Clamps.

8.7 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 9. RF and ESD Computer-Aided Design (CAD).

9.1 RF ESD Design Environment.

9.2 ESD Design with Hierarchical Parameterized Cells.

9.3 ESD Design of RF CMOS-Based Hierarchical Parameterized Cells.

9.4 RF BiCMOS ESD Hierarchical Parameterized Cell.

9.5 Advantages and Limitations of the ESD Design System.

9.6 Guard Ring P-Cell Methodology.

9.7 Summary and Closing Comments.



Chapter 10. Alternative ESD Concepts: On-Chip and Off-Chip.

10.1 Spark Gaps.

10.2 Field Emission Devices.

10.3 Off-chip Protection and Off-Chip Transient Suppression Devices.

10.4 Off-Chip Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) Devices.

10.5 Off-Chip Polymer Voltage Suppression (PVS) Devices.

10.6 Package-Level Mechanical ESD Solutions.

10.7 RF Proximity Communications Chip-to-Chip ESD Design Practices.

10.8 Summary and Closing Comments.