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Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

Chunzai Wang (Editor), Shang-Ping Xie (Editor), James A. Carton (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66594-7

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

414 pages

Select type: O-Book


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 147.

It is more than 30 years since the publication of Jacob Bjerknes' groundbreaking ideas made clear the importance of ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropics. It is now more than 20 years since the arrival of a massive El Niño in the fall of 1982 set off a cascade of observational and theoretical studies. During the following decades, the climate research community has made exceptional progress in refining our capacity to observe earth's climate and theorize about it, including new satellite-based and in situ monitoring systems and coupled ocean-atmosphere predictive numerical models. Of equal importance. is the expanding scope ofresearch, which now reaches far beyond the Pacific El Niño and includes climate phenomena in other ocean basins.

In order to cover the now global context of ocean-atmosphere interaction we have organized this monograph around five principal themes, each introduced by one or more broad overview papers. Theme I covers interaction and climate variability in the Pacific sector, with extensive discussion of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and with the possible causes and consequences of variability on both shorter and longer timescales. Theme II is devoted to interaction in the Atlantic sector. This basin exhibits complex behavior, reflecting its geographic location between two major zones of convection as well as neighboring the tropical Pacific. Theme III reviews the recent, exciting progress in our understanding of climate variability in the Indian sector. Theme IV addresses the interaction between the tropics and the extratropics, which are linked through the presence of shallow meridional overturning cells in the ocean. Finally, Theme V discusses overarching issues of cross-basin interaction.

Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, and James A. Carton vii

A Global Survey of Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and Climate Variability
Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, and James A. Carton 1

Theme I: Pacific Climate Variability

Understanding ENSO Physics—A Review
Chunzai Wang and Joel Picaut 21

Westerly Wind Events in the Tropical Pacific and Their Influence on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere
System: A Review
Matthieu Lengaigne, Jean-Philippe Boulanger, Christophe Menkes, Pascale Delecluse, and Julia Slingo 49

The Control of Meridional Differential Surface Heating Over the Level of ENSO Activity:
A Heat-Pump Hypothesis
De-Zheng Sun 71

Broadening the Atmospheric Bridge Paradigm: ENSOTeleconnections to the Tropical West Pacific-
Indian Oceans Over the Seasonal Cycle and to the North Pacific in Summer
Michael A. Alexander, Ngar-Cheung Lau, and James D. Scott 85

Predicting Pacific Decadal Variability
Richard Seager, Alicia R. Karspeck, Mark A. Cane, Yochanan Kushnir, Alessandra Giannini, Alexey Kaplan, Ben Kerman, and Jennifer Velez 105

Theme II: Tropical Atlantic Climate Variability

Tropical Atlantic Variability: Patterns, Mechanisms, and Impacts
Shang-Ping Xie and James A. Carton 121

On the Role of the South Atlantic Atmospheric Circulation in Tropical Atlantic Variability
Marcelo Barreiro, Alessandra Giannini, Ping Chang, and R. Saravanan 143

Toward Understanding Tropical Atlantic Variability Using Coupled Modeling Surgery
Lixin Wu, QiongZhang, and Zhengyu Liu 157

Thermodynamic Coupling and Predictability of Tropical Sea Surface Temperature
R. Saravanan and Ping Chang 171

Internal Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean
Markus Jochum, Raghu Murtugudde, Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, and Antonio J. Busalacchi 181

Theme III: Indian Ocean Climate Variability

Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean
Toshio Yamagata, Swadhin K. Behera, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Mark R. Jury, and Suryachandra A. Rao 189

Role of the Indian Ocean in Regional Climate Variability
H. Annamalai and Raghu Murtugudde 213

Interannual Indian Rainfall Variability and Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies
Gabriel A. Vecchi and D. E. Harrison 247

Theme IV: Tropical-Extratropical Interaction

Shallow Overturning Circulations of the Tropical-Subtropical Oceans
Friedrich A. Schott, Julian P. McCreary, Jr., and Gregory C. Johnson 261

Seasonal Variation of the Subtropical/Tropical Pathways in the Atlantic Ocean From an Ocean Data
Assimilation Experiment
Meyre P. Da Silva and Ping Chang 305

Gyre-Connected Variations Inferred From the Circulation Indices in the Northern Pacific Ocean
Dongxiao Wang, Yun Liu, and Dejun Gu 319

Theme V: Cross-Basin Issues

Observed Associations Among Storm Tracks, Jet Streams and Midlatitude Oceanic Fronts
Hisashi Nakamura, Takeaki Sampe, Youichi Tanimoto, and Akihiko Shimpo 329

The Relationship of Western Boundary Current Heat Transport and Storage to Midlatitude
Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction
Kathryn A. Kelly and Shenfu Dong  347

Two Different Regimes of Anomalous Walker Circulation Over the Indian and Pacific Oceans
Before and After the Late 1970s
Ryuichi Kawamura, Hiromitsu Aruga, Tomonori Matsuura, and Satoshi lizuka 365

Tropical Tropospheric Temperature and Precipitation Response to Sea Surface Temperature Forcing
Hui Su, J. David Neelin, and Joyce E. Meyerson 379

Convection, Cloud-Radiative Feedbacks and Thermodynamic Ocean Coupling in Simple Models
of the Walker Circulation
Adam H. Sobel, Christopher S. Bretherton, Hezi Gildor, and Matthew E. Peters 393