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Earth's Deep Water Cycle



Earth's Deep Water Cycle

Steven D. Jacobsen (Editor), Suzan van der Lee (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-875-90433-7 January 2006 American Geophysical Union 313 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 168.

The distribution of H2O in the Earth is under debate. Although liquid water covers 70% of the surface, the oceans represent only about 0.025% of the planet's mass-far less water than thought to have been present during Earth's formation. If our planet is "missing" most of its original water, could it reside in the mantle? Can we detect it seismically?

Recognition of the capacity of some deep-mantle minerals to absorb water has propelled an interdisciplinary field of research addressing these two questions, and more. Earth's Deep Water Cycle advances the field with experimental, modeling, and seismic studies that focus on the physical characteristics of "hydrated" minerals, the potentially H2O-rich transition zone (410-660 km depth), and our detection abilities.

Integrated perspectives from four fields of research are featured:

  • Mineral physics and geochemistry
  • Seismology and electrical conductivity
  • Properties of deep hydrous mantle
  • Global models and consequences of a deep-Earth water cycle

From experimental synthesis and physical properties measurements to geophysical observations and geodynamic modeling, we are beginning to understand what parameters and data are needed to detect or refute the possibility of water in the deep Earth.

Steven D. Jacobsen and Suzan van der Lee  vii

I. Overviews

Nominally Anhydrous Minerals and Earth’s Deep Water Cycle
Joseph R. Smyth and Steven D. Jacobsen  1

Seismological Constraints on Earth’s Deep Water Cycle
Suzan van der Lee and Douglas A. Wiens 13

II. Water Storage and Stability of Hydrous Phases in the Mantle

Phase Relations of Hydrous Peridotite: Implications for Water Circulation in the Earth’s Mantle
Tetsuya Komabayashi 29

Hydrogen Incorporation in Natural Mantle Olivines
Jed L. Mosenfelder, Thomas G. Sharp, Paul D. Asimow, and George R. Rossman 45

Water in Transition Zone and Lower Mantle Minerals
Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova, Catherine A. McCammon, and Stephen J. Mackwell 57

Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous and Nominally Anhydrous Deep Mantle Phases
Annette K. Kleppe and Andrew P. Jephcoat  69

III. Physical Properties of a Deep Hydrous Mantle

Influence of Water on Major Phase Transitions in the Earth’s Mantle
Konstantin D. Litasov, Eiji Ohtani, and Asami Sano  95

Influence of Hydrogen-Related Defects on the Electrical Conductivity
and Plastic Deformation of Mantle Minerals: A Critical Review
Shun-ichiro Karato 113

Effect of Water on the Sound Velocities of Ringwoodite in the Transition Zone
Steven D. Jacobsen and Joseph R. Smyth 131

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Stability and Equation of State of
Superhydrous Phase B
Toru Inoue, Takayuki Ueda, Yuji Higo, Akihiro Yamada, Tetsuo Irifune, and Ken-ichi Funakoshi 147

Phase Diagram and Physical Properties of H2O at High Pressures and Temperatures:
Applications to Planetary Interiors
Jung-Fu Lin, Eric Schwegler, and Choong-Shik Yoo 159

IV. Observational Constraints on Water in the Deep Mantle

Water Content in the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath the North Pacific Derived From the Electrical Conductivity Anomaly
Takao Koyama, Hisayoshi Shimizu, Hisashi Utada, Masahiro Ichiki, Eiji Ohtani, and Ryota Hae  171

A Water-Rich Transition Zone Beneath the Eastern United States and Gulf of Mexico
From Multiple ScS Reverberations
Anna M. Courtier and Justin Revenaugh 181

Low Velocity Zone Atop the Transition Zone in the Western US From S Waveform Triplication
Teh-Ru Alex Song and Don V. Helmberger 195

Mantle Transition Zone Thickness in the Central South-American Subduction Zone
Jochen Braunmiller, Suzan van der Lee, Lindsey Doermann 215

Towards Mapping the Three-Dimensional Distribution of Water in the Upper Mantle
From Velocity and Attenuation Tomography
Azusa Shito, Shun-ichiro Karato, Kyoko N. Matsukage, and Yu Nishihara  225

Towards Mapping the Three-Dimensional Distribution of Water in the Transition Zone
From P-Velocity Tomography and 660-Km Discontinuity Depths
Daisuke Suetsugu, Toru Inoue, Akira Yamada, Dapeng Zhao, and Masayuki Obayashi 237

Seismic Evidence for Subduction-Transported Water in the Lower Mantle
Jesse F. Lawrence and Michael E. Wysession 251

V. Models of a Deep Water Cycle

Implications of Subduction Rehydration for Earth’s Deep Water Cycle
Lars Rüpke, Jason Phipps Morgan, and Jacqueline Eaby Dixon  263

Petrologic Structure of a Hydrous 410 km Discontinuity
Marc M. Hirschmann, Anthony C. Withers, and Cyril Aubaud 277

The Transition-Zone Water Filter Model for Global Material Circulation:
Where do we Stand?
Shun-ichiro Karato, David Bercovici, Garrett Leahy, Guillaume Richard and Zhicheng Jing 289