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Earth Environments, 2nd Edition

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Earth Environments, 2nd Edition

David Huddart, Tim A. Stott

ISBN: 978-1-119-41327-1 November 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 1008 Pages

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Description

Comprehensive coverage of the whole Earth system throughout its entire existence and beyond

Complete with a new introduction by the authors, this updated edition helps provide an understanding of the past, present, and future processes that occur on and in our Earth—the fascinating, yet potentially lethal, set of atmospheric, surface, and internal processes that interact to produce our living environment. It introduces students to our planet’s four key interdependent systems: the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, focusing on their key components, the interactions between them, and environmental change. The book also uses geological case studies throughout, in addition to the modern processes.

Topics covered in the Second Edition of Earth Environments: Past, Present and Future include: an Earth systems model; components systems and processes; atmospheric systems; oceanography; surface and internal geological systems; biogeography; and aspects of Earth's record. The book also discusses the impact of climate and environmental change in a final chapter that draws together Earth's systems and their evolution, and looks ahead to potential future changes in Earth’s environments.

  • Updated to include all the major developments since 2008
  • Features research boxes containing summaries based on recent key journal articles
  • Includes a companion web site containing multiple choice revision quizzes for students, PowerPoint slides for lecturers, useful links, and more
  • Presents further reading for each topic so that students can build their knowledge base to underpin their own undergraduate research project/dissertation
  • Offers additional case studies in each chapter for enhanced reader understanding

Earth Environments: Past, Present and Future is an excellent text for undergraduates in geosciences, environmental science, physical geography, natural hazards, and ecology.

About the Companion Website xxiii

Introduction xxv

Section I Introduction to Earth Systems 1

1 Introduction to Earth Systems 3

1.1 Introduction to Earth’s Formation 4

1.2 Introduction to Earth Spheres 5

1.3 Scales in Space and Time 7

1.4 Systems and Feedback 8

1.5 Open and Closed Flow Systems 9

1.6 Equilibrium in Systems 11

1.7 Time Cycles in Systems 13

Section II Atmospheric and Ocean Systems 17

2 Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere 19

2.1 Structure of the Atmosphere 20

2.2 Composition of the Atmosphere 21

2.3 Carbon Dioxide and Methane 23

2.4 Water Vapour 24

3 Energy in the Atmosphere and the Earth Heat Budget 27

3.1 Introduction 28

3.2 Solar Radiation 28

4 Moisture in the Atmosphere 41

4.1 Introduction 42

4.2 The Global Hydrological Cycle 42

4.3 Air Stability and Instability 46

4.4 Clouds 48

4.5 Precipitation 49

5 Atmospheric Motion 55

5.1 Introduction 56

5.2 Atmospheric Pressure 56

5.3 Winds and Pressure Gradients 58

5.4 The Global Pattern of Atmospheric Circulation 62

6 Weather Systems 67

6.1 Introduction 68

6.2 Macroscale Synoptic Systems 68

6.3 Meso‐Scale: local Winds 81

6.4 Microclimates 83

6.5 Weather Observation and Forecasting 89

7 World Climates 99

7.1 Introduction 100

7.2 Classification of Climate 100

8 Ocean Structure and Circulation Patterns 113

8.1 Introduction 114

8.2 Physical Structure of the Oceans 114

8.3 Temperature Structure of the Oceans 117

8.4 Ocean Circulation 117

8.5 Sea‐Level Change 121

9 Atmospheric Evolution 125

9.1 Evolution of Earth’s Atmosphere 126

10 Principles of Climate Change 131

10.1 Introduction 132

10.2 Evidence for Climate Change 133

10.3 Causes of Climate Change 145

Section III Endogenic Geological Systems 159

11 Earth Materials: Mineralogy, Rocks and the Rock Cycle 161

11.1 What is a Mineral? 162

11.2 Rocks and the Rock Cycle 173

11.3 Vulcanicity and Igneous Rocks 175

11.4 Sedimentary Rocks, Fossils and Sedimentary Structures 176

11.5 Metamorphic Rocks 187

12 The Internal Structure of the Earth 191

12.1 Introduction 192

12.2 Evidence of Earth’s Composition from Drilling 192

12.3 Evidence of Earth’s Composition from Volcanoes 193

12.4 Evidence of Earth’s Composition from Meteorites 194

12.5 Using Earthquake Seismic Waves as Earth Probes 194

13 Plate Tectonics and Volcanism: Processes, Products, and Landforms 199

13.1 Introduction 200

13.2 Global Tectonics: how Plates, Basins, and Mountains are Created 200

13.3 Volcanic Processes and the Global Tectonic Model 204

13.4 Magma Eruption 215

13.5 Explosive Volcanism 220

13.6 Petrographic Features of Volcaniclastic Sediments 228

13.7 Transport and Deposition of Pyroclastic Materials 228

13.8 The Relationship Between Volcanic Processes and the Earth’s Atmosphere and Climate 238

13.9 Plate Tectonics, Uniformitarianism and Earth History 245

14 Geotectonics: Processes, Structures, and Landforms 255

14.1 Introduction 256

14.2 Tectonic Structures 256

14.3 Tectonic Structures as Lines of Weakness in Landscape Evolution 263

Section IV Exogenic Geological Systems 265

15 Weathering Processes and Products 267

15.1 Introduction 268

15.2 Physical or Mechanical Weathering 270

15.3 Chemical Weathering 281

15.4 Measuring Weathering Rates 293

15.5 Weathering Landforms 295

16 Slope Processes and Morphology 299

16.1 Introduction 300

16.2 Slopes: Mass Movement 300

16.3 Hillslope Hydrology and Slope Processes 329

16.4 Slope Morphology and its Evolution 336

17 Fluvial Processes and Landform-Sediment Assemblages 349

17.1 Introduction 350

17.2 Loose Boundary Hydraulics 350

17.3 The Energy of a River and Its Ability to Do Work 353

17.4 Transport of the Sediment Load 353

17.5 Types of Sediment Load 355

17.6 River Hydrology 356

17.7 The Drainage Basin 358

17.8 Drainage Patterns and their Interpretation 362

17.9 Fluvial Channel Geomorphology 362

18 Carbonate Sedimentary Environments and Karst Processes and Landforms 411

18.1 Introduction 412

18.2 Carbonate Sedimentary Environments and Carbonate Rock Characteristics 412

18.3 Evaporites 430

18.4 Carbonate Facies Models 430

18.5 Karst Processes 435

19 Coastal Processes, Landforms, and Sediments 467

19.1 Introduction to the Coastal Zone 468

19.2 Sea Waves, Tides, and Tsunamis 470

19.3 Tides 476

19.4 Tsunamis 480

19.5 Coastal Landsystems 485

19.6 Distribution of Coastal Land systems 527

19.7 The Impact of Climatic Change on Coastal Landsystems: What Lies in the Future? 530

20 Glacial Processes and Land Systems 535

20.1 Introduction 536

20.2 Mass Balance and Glacier Formation 538

20.3 Mass Balance and Glacier Flow 546

20.4 Surging Glaciers 548

20.5 Processes of Glacial Erosion and Deposition 552

20.6 Glacial Landsystems 574

21 Periglacial Processes and Landform‐Sediment Assemblages 605

21.1 Introduction to the Term ‘Periglacial’ 606

21.2 Permafrost 606

21.3 Periglacial Processes and Landforms 609

21.4 Frost Heaving and Frost Thrusting 612

21.5 Landforms Associated with Frost Sorting 614

21.6 Needle Ice Development 615

21.7 Frost Cracking and the Development of Ice Wedges 615

21.8 Growth of Ground Ice and Its Decay, and the Development of Pingos, Thufurs, and Palsas 620

21.9 Processes Associated with Snowbanks (Nivation Processes) 626

21.10 Cryoplanation or Altiplanation Processes and Their Resultant Landforms 628

21.11 The Development of Tors 633

21.12 Slope Processes Associated with the Short Summer Melt Season 638

21.13 Cambering and Associated Structures 645

21.14 Wind Action in a Periglacial Climate 645

21.15 Fluvial Processes in a Periglacial Environment 648

21.16 Alluvial Fans in a Periglacial Region 650

21.17 An Overview of the Importance of Periglacial Processes in Shaping the Landscape of Upland Britain 652

21.18 The Periglaciation of Lowland Britain 654

22 Aeolian (Wind) Processes and Landform-Sediment Assemblages 655

22.1 Introduction 656

22.2 Current Controls on Wind Systems 657

22.3 Sediment Entrainment and Processes of Sand Movement 657

22.4 Processes of Wind Transport 659

22.5 Aeolian Bedforms 661

22.6 Dune and Aeolian Sediments 677

22.7 Dust and Loess Deposition 678

22.8 Wind Erosion Landforms 682

Section V The Biosphere 687

23 Principles of Ecology and Biogeography 689

23.1 Introduction 690

23.2 Why Do Organisms Live Where They Do? 690

23.3 Components of Ecosystems 694

23.4 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 699

23.5 Food Chains and Webs 704

23.6 Pathways of Mineral Matter (Biogeochemical Cycling) 707

23.7 Vegetation Succession and Climaxes 714

23.8 Concluding Remarks 732

24 Soil-forming Processes and Products 733

24.1 Introduction 734

24.2 Controls on Soil Formation 735

24.3 Soils as Systems 738

24.4 Soil Profile Development 739

24.5 Soil Properties 744

24.6 Key Soil Types, with a Description and Typical Profile 752

24.7 Podsolization: Theories 756

24.8 Soil Classification 757

24.9 Regional and Local Soil Distribution 759

24.10 The Development of Dune Soils: An Example from the Sefton Coast 768

24.11 The Development of Woodland Soils in Delamere Forest 770

24.12 Intrazonal Soils Caused by Topographic Change 770

24.13 Palaeosols 771

25 World Ecosystems 775

25.1 Introduction 776

25.2 The Tundra Ecozone 778

25.3 The Tropical (Equatorial) Rain Forest, or Humid Tropics Sensu Stricto, Ecozone 786

25.4 The Seasonal Tropics or Savanna Ecozone 793

25.5 Potential Effects of Global Warming on the World’s Ecozones 800

Section VI Global Environmental Change: Past, Present and Future 807

26 The Earth as a Planet: Geological Evolution and Change 809

26.1 Introduction 810

26.2 How Unique is the Earth as a Planet? 810

26.3 What Do We Really Know About the Early Earth? 811

26.4 The Early Geological Record 811

26.5 The First Earth System 815

26.6 How Did the Earth’s Core Form? 817

26.7 Evolution of the Earth’s Mantle 818

26.8 Evolution of the Continental Crust 827

27 Atmospheric Evolution and Climate Change 831

27.1 Evolution of Earth’s Atmosphere 832

27.2 Future Climate Change 833

28 Future Change in Ocean Circulation and the Hydrosphere 843

28.1 Introduction 844

28.2 Sea‐Level Change and the Supercontinental Cycle 844

28.3 Projected Long‐Term Changes in the Ocean 849

28.4 Future Changes in the Water Cycle 850

29 Biosphere Evolution and Change 855

29.1 Introduction 856

29.2 Mechanisms of Evolution in the Fossil Record 856

29.3 The Origins of Life 860

29.4 An Outline History of the Earth’s Biospheric Evolution 862

29.5 Mass Extinctions and Catastrophes in the History of Life on Earth 887

30 Environmental Change: Greenhouse and Icehouse Earth Phases and Climates Prior to Recent Changes 899

30.1 Introduction 900

30.2 Early Glaciations in the Proterozoic Phase of the Pre‐Cambrian (the Snowball Earth Hypothesis) 900

30.3 Examples of Changes from Greenhouse to Icehouse Climates in the Earth’s Past 908

30.4 Late Cenozoic Ice Ages: Rapid Climate Change in the Quaternary 922

30.5 Late Glacial Climates and Evidence for Rapid Change 932

30.6 The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum and the LIA 942

31 Global Environmental Change in the Future 951

31.1 Introduction 952

31.2 Future Climate Change 952

31.3 Change in the Geosphere 955

31.4 Change in the Oceans and Hydrosphere 958

31.5 Change in the Biosphere 959

31.6 A Timeline for Future Earth 960

31.7 Causes for Future Optimism? 961

31.8 Concluding Remarks 965

Index 967