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Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

Asish Basu (Editor), Stan Hart (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66423-0 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 437 Pages

O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 95.

Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close-2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer-3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest-4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

Preface
Stan Hart and Asish Basu xi

THE EARLY EARTH AND ITS ENVIRONS

Live 107pd in the Early Solar System and Implications for Planetary Evolution
J. H. Chen and G. J. Wasserburg 1

40Ar-39Ar and Noble Gas Analyses of a H-type Cast Included in a Shocked L-Chondrite From Antarctica
Ichiro Kaneoka, Nobuo Takaoka, and Keizo Yanai 21

Geochemical Constraints on the Origin of the Moon
Stuart Ross Taylor and Tezer M. Esat 33

Accretion and Early Differentiation History of the Earth Based on Extinct Radio nuclides
Stein B. Jacobsen and Charles L. Harper, Jr. 47

Influence of Accretion on Lead in the Earth
Stephen J. G. Galer and Steven L. Goldstein 75

Three Time-Scales for the Mantle
Claude J. Allegre, Bernard Dupre, and Eric Lewin 99

THE MANTLE AND ITS MELTING PRODUCTS

Partial Melting of Fertile Mantle Peridotite at High Pressures: An Experimental Study Using
Aggregates of Diamond
Ikuo Kushiro 109

Os Partitioning Between Phases in Lherzolite and Basalt
Stanley R. Hart and Gregory E. Ravizza 123

Petrogenesis of Ultramafic Xenoliths From Hawaii Inferred From Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotopes
Osamu Okano and Mitsunobu Tatsumoto 135

Temporal Isotopic Variations in the Hawaiian Mantle Plume: The Lanai Anomaly, the Molokai
Fracture Zone and a Seawater-Altered Lithospheric Component in Hawaiian Volcanism
Asish R. Basu and Billy E. Faggart, Jr. 149

Temporal Geochemical Evolution of Kilauea Volcano: Comparison of Hilina and Puna Basalt
C.-Y. Chen, F. A. Frey, J. M. Rhodes, and R. M. Easton 161

Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Society Islands: New Evidence for Deep Mantle Recycling
William M. White and Robert A. Duncan 183

Depleted and Enriched Upper Mantle Sources for Basaltic Rocks From Diverse Tectonic
Environments in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: The Generation of Oceanic Alkaline vs. Tholeiitic Basalts
Brian L. Cousens 207

The Character of the Subcontinental Mantle in Southeast Asia: Evidence From Isotopic and Elemental
Compositions of Extension-Related Cenozoic Basalts in Thailand
Samuel B. Mukasa, G. Matthew Fischer, and Sandra M. Barr  233

Petrogenesis of Italian Alkaline Lavas Deduced From Pb-Sr-Nd Isotope Relationships
Massimo D'Antonio, George R. Tilton, and Lucia Civetta 253

The Lithospheric Manfie Beneath Central Europe: Nd Isotopic Constraints for Its Late Proterozoic
Enrichment and Implications for Early Crustal Evolution
Peter Stille and Urs Schaltegger 269

Isotopic Studies of Processesin Mafic Magma Chambers: IH The Muskox Intrusion, Northwest
Territories, Canada
Brian W. Stewart and Donald J. DePaolo 277

Lead Isotope Mapping of Crustal Reservoirs Within the Grenville Superterrane: I. Central and
Southern Appalachians
A. K. Sinha, J.P. Hogan, and J. Parks 293

A P-T-t Path for an (Ultra?-) High-Pressure Ultramafic/Mafic Rock-Association and Its Felsic
Country-Rocks Based on SHRIMP-Dating of Magmatic and Metamorphic Zircon Domains. Example:
Alpe Arami (Central Swiss Alps)
Dieter Gebauer 307

UNTANGLING CRUSTAL CONGERIES

Mineral Inclusions in Heavy Minerals of the Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks of the
Dora-Maira Massif and Their Bearing on the Relative Timing of the Petrological Events
H.-P. Schertl and W. Schreyer 331

Shock Metamorphosed Zircons with Correlated U-Pb Discordance and Melt Rocks With Concordant
Protolith Ages Indicate an Impact Origin for the Sudbury Structure
T. E. Krogh, S. L. Kamo, and B. F. Bohor 343

U-Pb Reverse Discordance in Zircons: The Role of Fine-Scale Oscillatory Zoning and Sub-Micron
Transport of Pb
James M. Mattinson, Cinda M. Graubard, David L. Parkinson, and William C. McClelland 355

SOILS, SEAWATER AND STANDARDS

Recent Erosional History of a Soil Profile Based on Cosmogen Inic-Situ Radionuclides 14C and 10Be
D. Lal, M. Pavich, Z. Y. Gu, A. J. T. Jull, M. Caffee, R. Finkel, and J. Southon 371

Preferential Weathering of Potassium Feldspar in Mature Soils
Todd K. Hinkley 377

Evaluation of the Sedimentary Manganese Deposits of Mexico and Morocco for Determining Lead and
Strontium Isotopes in Ancient Seawater
B. R. Doe and R. A. Ayuso, Kiyoto Futa, and Z. E. Peterman 391

Industrial Lead Contamination of Natural Ecosystemisn Japan
Masayo Murozumi, Seiji Nakamura, and Clair Patterson 409

Evaluation of a 202Pb205Pb Double Spike for High-Precision Lead Isotope Analysis
W. Todt, R. A. Cliff, A. Hanser, A. W. Hoffman  429