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Earth Science in the City: A Reader

Earth Science in the City: A Reader

Grant Heiken (Editor), Robert Fakundiny (Editor), John Sutter (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66563-3 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 444 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series.

Today nearly half of the Earth's peoples live in cities, and projected trends indicate a rise to five billion city dwellers by the year 2025. All cities become increasingly coupled with and vulnerable to their environment as they grow. For cities to be safe and sustainable we must be ever aware of the inter-relationships between natural processes and the urban environment, effects on the population, and—in turn—the effects of population on the environment. Many of these relationships, which become issues or problems of public note usually when we are faced with immediate conditions of risk—including water use sustainability or hazard mitigation from natural disasters—must be addressed via the geosciences. And geoscience researchers should be aware that the results of their work are vital to solving urban problems both in the practical and theoretical domains, and for immediate and future needs. The present book speaks to such concerns. We hope it also serves to stimulate discussion of, and research on, urban geoscience for professionals in the field or associated with it, and for students entering the field.

Grant Heiken, Robert Fakundiny, and John Sutter  v

Grant Heiken  1

Section I. Background--Earth Science in the Cities

Chapter 1. Large Urban ConcentrationsA: New Phenomenon
George Bugliarello  7

Chapter 2. Geoantiquitiesin the Urban Landscape; Earth History Records in the Cities
Marjorie A. Chan, Donald R. Currey, Andrea N. Dion, and Holly S. Godsey  21

Chapter 3. Engineering Geology of New York City: Continuing Value of Geologic Data
Charles A. Baskerville and Robert H. Fakundiny 43

Section II. Natural Hazards and the City

Chapter 4. Towards Integrated Natural Hazard Reduction in Urban Areas
Greg A. Valentine 63

Chapter 5. Seismic-Risk Evaluation in Cities of New York and Surrounding Regions: Issues Related to all Intraplate Cities
Robert H. Fakundiny 75

Chapter 6. Facing Volcanic and Related Hazards in the Neapolitan Area
Giovanni Orsi, Sandro de Vita, Mauro A. Di Vito, Roberto Isaia, Rosella Nave, and Grant Heiken 121

Chapter 7. Tsunami Impact and Mitigation in Inhabited Areas
G. T. Hebenstreit, E I. Gonzdlez, and J. Preuss 171

Chapter 8. Landslides and Cities: An Unwanted Partnership
Richard J. Pike, David G. Howell  187

Section III. Urban Hydrology

Chapter 9. Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater Systems
J. M. Sharp, Jr., J. N. Krothe, J. D. Mather, B. Garcia-Fresca, and C. A. Stewart 257

Chapter 10. Integrated Environmental Modeling of the Urban Ecosystem
Timothy N. McPherson, Steven J. Burian, Michael J. Brown, Gerald E. Streit, and H. J. Turin 279

Chapter 11. Urban Environmental Modeling and Assessment Using Detailed Urban Databases
Steven J. Burian, Timothy N. McPherson, Michael J. Brown, Gerald E. Streit, and H. J. Turin 303

Section IV. The Remotely Sensed City

Chapter 12. Mapping the City Landscape From Space: The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) Urban Environmental Monitoring Program
Michael S. Ramsey 337

Chapter 13. Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping: Applications to Hurricane Storm Surge Hazards
Dean Whitman, Keqi Zhang, Stephen P Leatherman, and William Robertson  363

Section V. Integrated Earth Sciences and Urban Development and Sustainability

Chapter 14. Integrating Geological Informationin to Urban Planning and Management: Approaches for the 21 st Century
B. R. Marker, J. J. Pereira, and E. E J. de Mulder 379

Chapter 15. Greater Phoenix 2100: Building a National Urban Environmental Research Agenda
Jonathan Fink, Frederick Steiner, Nancy B. Grimm, and Charles L. Redman 413

Chapter 16. Modeling Cities--The Los Alamos Urban Security Initiative
Grant Heiken, Greg A . Valentine, Michael Brown, Steen Rasmussen, Jonathan Dowell, Sudha Maheshwari, and Denise C. George 427