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Earthquake Source Mechanics

Earthquake Source Mechanics

Shamita Das (Editor), John Boatwright (Editor), Christopher H. Scholz (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66486-5

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

341 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 37.

A number of rocks have achieved a kind of fame in geophysical circles because of their frequent use in experimental studies. The names Carrera marble, which has attained a far larger fame in its use for Italian sculpture and facades, Yule marble, and Solenhofen limestone come immediately to mind as experimentalists' rocks. None, however, can match the longevity and shear body of study devoted to them as that of the granite from Westerly, Rhode Island. It is because of the great attention that has been played upon this rock and because of the considerable difficulty one encounters in obtaining a sample of it (it has not been commercially quarried in over 25 years), that Westerly granite has achieved a sort of cult status among experimental geophysicists. It is ironic that many who use the well-worn quip "geophysicists think that the crust is made of Westerly granite" are probably unaware that Westerly granite was once designated by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Carnegie Institution as 'G-1', the type rock of the continental crust [Fairbairn et al., 1951].

Foreword
S. Das, J. Boatwright, and C. H. Scholz vii

Preface: A Short Geophysical History of Westerly Granite
C.H. Scholz ix

LABORATORY STUDIES

On the Normal Stress Dependence of the Shear Fracture Energy
Teng-Fong Wong 1

Dynamic Breakdown Processes and the Generating Mechanism for High-Frequency Elastic
Radiation During Stick-Slip Instabilities
Mitiyasu Ohnaka, Yasuto Kuwahara, Kiyohiko Yamamoto, and Tomozvo Hirasawa 13

State Variable Fault Constitutive Relations for Dynamic Slip
Paul G. Okubo and James H. Dieterich 25

A Model for the Nucleation of Earthquake Slip
James H. Dieterich 37

Velocity-Dependent Behavior of Simulated Halite Shear Zones: An Analog for Silicates
Toshihiko Shimamoto and John M. Logan 49

THEORETICAL MODELING

On the Elastic Contact Modeling of Faults With Variable Stiffness
B.V. Kostrov and S. Das 65

Rupture Processesin the Presence of Creep Zones
Victor C. Li and N. Fares 71

Slip on an Impermeable Fault in a Fluid-Saturated Rock Mass
J.W. Rudnicki 81

Fracture of a Single Asperity on a Finite Fault: A Model for Weak Earthquakes?
S . Das and B. V. Kostrov 91

The Seismic Radiation From a 3-D Dynamic Model of a Complex Rupture Process. Part I: Confined Ruptures
Jokn Boatwright and Howard Quin 97

Effect of Transverse Isotxopy on Strong Ground Motion Due to Strike Slip Faulting
J.D. Achenbach and M.-K. Kuo  111

Fast Near Source Evaluation of Strong Ground Motion for Complex Source Models
V. Farra, P. Bernard, and R. Madariaga 121

OBSERVATIONS: THE FAULTING PROCESS

A Discussion of the Depth Extent of Rupture in Large Continental Earthquakes
Jurgen Strehlau 131

The Fractal Geometry of Faults and Faulting
C.H. Scholz and C. A. Aviles 147

Rupture Interaction With Fault Jogs
Richard H. Sibson 157

Variations in the Geometry and Amount of Slip on the Haiyuan (Nanxihaushan) Fault Zone,
China and the Surface Rupture of the 1920 Haiyuan Earthquake
Deng Quidong, Chen Shefa, Song Fangmin, Zhu Shilong, Wang Yipeng, Zhang Weiqi, Jiao Decheng, B. C. Burchfiel  169

Strain Accumulationa nd Rupture Processesin the Subduction Z one A long the Nankai-Suruga Trough in Western Japan
Kiyoo Mogi 183

Seismic Slip, Aseismic Slip, and the Mechanics of Repeating Earthquakes on the Calaveras Fault, California
William H. Bakun, Geoffrey C. P. King, and Robert S. Cockerham 195

OBSERVATIONS: SOURCE PARAMETERS

Small and Large Earthquakes: The Effects of the Thickness of Seismogenic Layer and the Free Surface Kunihiko Shimazaki 209

Some Observations Indicating Complications in the Nature of Earthquake Scaling
A. McGarr 217

Earthquake Repeat Time and Average Stress Drop
Hiroo Kanamori and Clarence R. Allen 227

Low Stress-Drop Earthquakes in the Light of New Data From the Anza, California Telemetered Digital Array
James N. Brune, Joe Fletcher, Frank Vernon, Linda Haar, Tom Hanks, and Jon Berger 237

Rupture of the Valparaiso (Chile) Gap From 1971 to 1985
I. Korrat and R. Madariaga 247

Objective Determination of Source Parameters and Similarity of Earthquakes of Different Size
D. J. Andrews 259

On Simulating Large Earthquakes by Green's-Function Addition of Smaller Earthquakes
William B. Joyner and David M. Boore 269

The Effect of Finite Bandwidth on Seismic Scaling Relationships
D.M. Boore 275

OBSERVATIONS: STRONG GROUND MOTION

Dense Seismograph Array Observations of Earthquake Rupture Dynamics
Paul Spudich and David Oppenheimer 285

A Study of Strong Motions From Italy and Yugoslavia in Terms of Gross Source Properties
Ezio Faccioli 297

Implication of Attenuation for Studies of the Earthquake Source
John G. Anderson 311

Downhole Recordings of Seismic Radiation
Ralph J. Archuleta 319

The Effects of Attenuation on the Scaling of Source Parameters for Earthquakes at Anza, California
J. B. Fletcher, L. C. Haar, F. L. Vernon, J. N. Brune, T. C. Hanks, and J. Berger 331